The modern state and economic efficiency of agricultural production in terms of its specialization in the example of corn production

The nature and terms of the specialization of agricultural enterprises. The dynamics of the production of corn for grain. Deepening of specialization and improve production efficiency. The introduction of mechanization and advanced technologies.

Рубрика Сельское, лесное хозяйство и землепользование
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 13.05.2015

Content

Introduction

Part I. Scientific bases of specialization of agricultural production

1.1 Essence and objective terms of development of specialization of agricultural enterprises

1.2 Methodology of determination is specialization of agricultural enterprises and indexes of her economic efficiency

Part II. Modern the state and economic efficiency of agricultural production in the conditions of his specialization

2.1 Productive resources of economy and their use

2.2 A dynamics of development of production of corn is on grain in an economy

2.3 Economic efficiency of specialization is on the production of agricultural products

Part III. Deepening of specialization and increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production

3.1 Concentration of agricultural production and translation of him are on industrial basis

3.2 Introduction of complex mechanization and progressive technologies of production of agricultural goods

3.3 Development of specialization of agricultural production is on the base of between economic cooperation and agro industrial integration

Conclusion

References

Introduction

specialization agricultural corn mechanization

The major factors of production are development of marketer lations, increase of scales of production, scientific and technical progress.

The most important sign of specialization is a production of certain product or part of him specialization is a concentration rural.

Specialization conduces to that a producer, as a rule, produces products not for itself, but for other members of society, often his products are not the article of the personal or productive consumption.

The presence of such exchange as a result of specialization conduces productions to the improvement. Already a long ago it is known that absence of specialization, so-called materialwell-being itself in an economy, generates not efficiency of production. Advantages that is provide by specialization of productions:

- Firstly, she increases the labor productivity considerably. It for it is knitted with that

Specialization creates terms for organization of continuous (current) process of production, application of the most perfect facilities of labor, introduction of mechanization and computer aided, achievement of the complete and effective use of technological equipment, improvement of structure of enterprises, increase of co-operation of labor manufacturing.

- Secondly, specialization gives an opportunity better to use a main productive body man based on taking into account of her individual differences and capabilities.

- Thirdly, specialization on implementation of certain work forms qualification of worker. A long ago it is known that in most cases a man cannot identically adroitly execute many types of activity. However, she can attain out standing mastery in some types of works.

- Fourthly, specialization in execution productive functions conduces to the economy of time deprives a production from super flu us charge, especially during the change of one type of activity by other kind.

- Fifthly, specialization gives an opportunity better to use regional features. Yes, a pot gives high harvests in Chernihiv, Zhytomyr, Volyn areas. In addition, on Odessa, through natural terms the far fewer of her grows Kherson. On the south of Ukraine get the high harvests of wheat, a watermelon grow etalcoolie of rook. Thus, geographical specialization of production has an important value for providing of the effective use of such important resource, as agricultural earth.

However, in an eventual result, specialization provides more advantages, than defects, and humanity uses this form of organization of production for the increase of the labor productivity.

Specialization closely constrained with cooperation development of that is based on strengthening and deepening of specialization.

Cooperation is the special form of the protracted rational productive connections between the specialized in dependent enterprises comparatively with other enterprises that does not have such connections.

In accordance with forms specializations in industry exist three forms of cooperation

- a subject (aggregate) - main enterprise produces eventual products and gets different wares from other enterprises;

- detailed - on a main enterprise knots and details come from the row of the specialize enterprises;

- technological - an enterprise supplies to other enterprises the products of the separate stages of productive process.

Thus, specialization stipulates the necessity of commodity exchange between the members of society.

Part I. Scientific bases of specialization of agricultural production

1.1 Essence and objective terms of development of specialization of agricultural enterprises

Specialization of agricultural production and agrarian market are the processes that a rose up yet in antiquity as a result of division of labor bound and interdependent in a public production. A market stimulates demand and supply not in general, but in relation to concrete products and services. Specialization also determines a production and realization of product sufferer separate kinds. Thus, basic levers and methods of adjusting of both specialization and market relations, gather. Role and value of specialization in the increase of efficiency of production in the conditions of a agrarian trans for matins considerably grows as at the level of zone, region, administrative district, on enterprise that requires further perfection of development of this process in accordance with the action of economic laws and on the basis of the maximal use of naturally biological terms and resource potential.

Presence of the multi channel system of production distribution, passing to the market prices that is formed by correlation of demand and supplies, their instability and systematic during a year vibrations result in the artificial overstating or under stating of part of separate wares in the structure of commodity products that does impossible ability of the last to serve as the index of determination of level of specialization on the costs of realization. In the conditions of passing to the market relations for this purpose it is suggested to use the structure of commodity products in comparable prices.

The agrarian sector of economy of Ukraine is presently characterized to rolling up of specialization and concentration of production, as are salt potential possibilities of deepening of these processes for the acceleration of rates of development of agriculture and increase of his efficiency actually are not used. However exactly they together with technological, organizationally economic, social, ecological and other factors must provide the high competitiveness of products and due place her on the markets of food.

In the process of reformation of agrarian sphere, priority direction sere not certain in relation to maintenance all turned out in the past and adaptation of him to the terms of market economy that resulted in considerable losses and destruction created earlier economic potential. At the sometime, wherein during realization of this work productive and social in restructures, technologies of production and skilled potential, we restored, the market methods of mйnage are inculcated, the accrued forming develop successfully, provided them economy growing.

During restructuring of collective a agricultural enterprises in the legal organization structures of different patterns of ownership and manage with a next association them in associations, consortia and business concerns on the basis of cooperation of the landed and property shares there are directions of specialization in them kept, and during the selection of the ground up agrarian forming in independent subjects of manage with division between them earth and property there is a process of despecializations of production.

In the conditions of economy both large-scale and small-scale production can successfully function in an agrarian sphere. Presently the last prevails in a country, as a more than half of gross products of agriculture is produced in the personal peasant and farmer economies. However, not diminishing them to the role, food safety of the state however, the specialized enterprises of all patterns of ownership and mйnage will decide with the rational pattern of production and high level of competitiveness.

Small-scale enterprises must be specialized, to unite, to cooperate and integrated both for horizontal sand for vertical lines. Cooperative motion must develop thus, first of all, through creation of attendant and productive cooperative stores forming of that requires development of the scientifically reasonable system of mutual relations of participants of cooperation, including to the management, marketing, mechanism of distribution of incomes. In a prospect priority directions of cooperation of agricultural commodity producers will be: rationalization of organization of production, storage and production distribution; building of lines and workshops of small-yield is from her processing; material and technical supply and technological service; creation of the cooperative forming of higher order -associations, holding, business concerns, consortia and other large whole sale victuallers and wholesale consumer of industrial products, that is produced for the necessities of village, that will function on internal, and external.

At determination straight of specialization of farms it is necessary to take into account not only local naturally-economic terms and their territorial placing but also traditions that was folded here, professional preparation and personal interest of family members in development of that or other industry, labor intensiveness sand production of goods volumes, provision of resources and domestic employment in an economy, possibility of storage and supply of products to the markets of sale. For successful work of this category of enterprises state support is needed from the selection of favorable credits on the security earth and property, realization of projects of development of farming with participation of foreign investors and programs of technical help. It is needed to work out the scientific systems of conduct of agriculture for separate naturally-economic zones with the ground of intensive technologies of growing of agricultural cultures on small areas and maintenance of small groups of animals, application of small technique; to practice providing go farmers material and technical resources on leasing basis; to set the minimum fixed prices on mine-out by them products; to promote the level of, their skilled and in formatively-consultative scientific service.

Directions of specialization of agricultural enterprises of the investigated zone will be determined by efficiency of the use of earth, productive potential, labor resources and volume of income got on this basis, but substantial changes must test zonal, district, inter governmental and economic specializations through creation of the strictly specialized districts and natural habitats of production of food grain, sugar beets, backache products, beef, pork and milk. Thus the cattle breeding it is expedient to combine with sugar beet, and pig breeding and poultry farming with a grain-growing production. It is important, that deepening of specialization and cooperation provided the rational natural use and guard of environment.

Taking into account, that Podillya belongs to the least muddy districts, it is expedient to deepen his specialization on a production ecologically of clean products. In the marked region it follows to erect application of mineral fertilizers and pesticides to the minimum. The fertility-improving of soil share can be attained on the basis of increase of the use of organic, bacterial and mitotic fertilizers, expansion of areas of leguminous plants and long-term herbages.

In a certain period it is expedient to develop the economies specialized on the production of milk with a population 800-1200 cows, meat of cattle with the concentration of animals on before growing and fattening 2, 7-3 thousand chairmen and pork 3-8 thousand chair men and with specific gravity in commodity products on the comparable costs of milk according to 45-60 percents, beef - 55-70 and pork are 50-60 percents. In relation to grain crops, then most distribution agricultural enterprises that provide gross collection them with in the limits of 5-10 thousand tons and sugar beets -from 7 to 15 thousand tons must get. Thus part of grain in general commodity mass must present from 30 to 60, and sugar raw material - from45 to 60 percent.

On the basis of ground of possible production of agricultural goods volumes on the nearest and remote prospects, populations counted on a minimum and complete necessity in food stuffs, directions of specialization of agricultural enterprises of forest-steppe zone are worked out. In particular, there is a decline in the structure of commodity products of specific gravity of plant-grower industries and increase of stock-raising. Thus part of grain-crops will diminish in her, and milk and beef - will grow. Thus, it is possible to forecast, that in a prospect to the extent of increase of population of cows and sapling/pl of cattle and increase of their productivity the cattle breeding will take the leading place in general commodity mass, and direction of their specialization is transformed from grain the cattle breeding and sugar beets in a beet grain-growing-grower.

Among major factors that determine further development and deepening of specialization of agrarian production, there is a human capital. For this reason the decision of socio-economic problems of rural development, creation of necessary living and cultural conditions of life to the workers of village, realization of the program of revival of rural territories, increase of professional and qualifying levels of labor potential of agrarian sphere must be come a near-term task.

Deepening of specialization and concentrations of agricultural production needs taking into account of the state and prospects of development of international division of labor, aspiration of foreign economic activity of our country on including of her in to the world and European agrarian organizations, studies and inputs of experience of countries of Central and East Europe in relation to realization of agrarian reform with bringing in of foreign investors.

It is necessary to renew the study of problem of specialization and concentration of agricultural production in research establishments and higher educational establishments of Ukraine and work out corresponding recommendations in relation to wide introduction of the marked processes in the accrued economic structures, orienting them on the strictly specialized organization of production.

An agro industrial production it is impossible to show out of the crisis state with out clearly certain directions and stages of his development. Therefore at state level it is needed to work out and carryout implementation of the National program of his revival and related to him other industries of national economy, that must define the integral system of the measures, sent to stabilizing of agrarian sphere, proceeding in the production volumes attained in 80th and only after it, are strategic tasks of remote prospect.

The economic form of division of labor is specialization. Division of labor, that comes true between enterprises and industries, sometimes it is very difficult to take into account. There are unforeseen disproportions between the links of the specialized production. In one enterprises and regions there are surpluses of the specialized products that creates the problem of their realization, and the sharp lack of stuff details and knots is tested in other that restrains development of production.

Specialization of agricultural production is organically connected with his placing. They are the forms of public division of labor and are in permanent inter communication. Placing characterizes the quantitative side of public division of labor and specifies, what types of products, in what size and on what areas produced on that or other territory(in area of, district).

Specialization removes the quality side of public division of labor and specifies, the production of which one types of products prevails on this territory. It is an effective for more organization of agriculture that gives an opportunity to concentrate the production of certain types of products of step separate territories and enterprises and to get, due to it, the best results of economic activity.

Among determinations of specialization and her forms most successful from our point of views such: specialization is prevailing development of one or a few industries in the production of commodity goods in separate enterprises, districts, areas, regions. Specialization is a process appropriate, much plan that depending on natural, economic and organizational factors developed in different directions, as a result there were her different forms that represent that or other feature of her use.

Economic efficiency of the specialized enterprises is condition by that she assists application of new technique, front-rank technological processes, most perfect methods of organization of production, the best use of equipment, forming of the state of highly skilled workers.

Economic efficiency of specialization of production can be defined by comparison of indexes of labor intensiveness and prime price of the wares made on the specialized and un specialized enterprises.

In connection with it determination of optimal size of enterprise as bases becomes substantial problem forest abolishment of level of his specialization.

Thus, specialization is the form of public division of labor. Moreover, specialization is an effective form of organization of agriculture that gives an opportunity to concentrate the production of certain types of products on separate territories and enterprises.

Specialization of agriculture is a difficult process that develops in various forms. Depending on an object to specialization, distinguish such her three forms:

1) Territorial specialization - prevailing production of those or other types of agricultural produce is on certain territory.

2) Specializations of agrarian enterprises are a prevailing production in them of corresponding type of products, for that are the most favorable naturally economic terms.

3) Inwardly economic specialization is further development of specialization of enterprise by the separation of productions and separate types of products or him the technological stages on separate inwardly economic subdivisions - brigades, farms, detachments, links, cooperative stores.

On technological principle, the productions of goods distinguish branch and in warily branch specialization.

4) Branch specialization is such specialization at that certain industry functions in an enterprise on principle of there served cycle of production.

Inwardly branch specialization means separated of production within the limits of the same industry.

All forms of specialization closely constrained inter an dare in permanent development. Further development of specialization of agricultural production, translation of him on industrial basis is one of major ways of acceleration of rates of his intensification. To it the achievements of pig breeding economies, poultry factories, economies testify from fattening of cattle et al, productive activity of that is sent to repressing development of main industry.

The result of deepening of specialization is development of different forms of cooperation and integration. In practice of agricultural production in a modern period, it is possible to distinguish three types of integration: horizontal, vertical and mixed.

Horizontal integration is characterize by combining effort of agricultural enterprises for the joint production of certain goods or implementation of works of one having a special purpose setting (travelling building, land-reclamation of earth and other)

Vertical integration consists in combining effort of economies and enterprises of different industries for realization to circulation of commodity products, which unites her production, purveyance, transporting, industrial processing and realization.

The mixed integration appears in the association of enterprises of different industries, between that there is not technical and technological connection from a production and realization of products(production of building materials in agricultural enterprises, creation of auxiliary enterprises from the production of agricultural goods in composition industrial enterprises or associations).

Horizontal integration comes true within the limits of industry of agriculture and that is why branch character has inwardly; the vertical and mixed decide the question of inter-branch character. The example of horizontal integration is creation between economic enterprises and associations (from the production of goods of stock-raising, plant-grower and other); vertical is organization of the different agro industrial forming (agro industrial combines, agrarian firms, agro industrial associations and others like that).

Naturalandclimatic,economic,biologicalfactorsinfluenceonplacingandspecializationofagriculturalproduction. One of major there is a natural and climatic factor. The types of soils, temperature condition, amount of precipitations, more substantial in all influence on placing of agricultural cultures and specialization of production.

Before deepening of specialization of enterprises, a competition induces between agricultural commodity producers that considerably increases in the conditions of the market saturated by food. In the end, every enterprise is concentrated on the production of those types of products that are competitive and provide him economic existence as a legal entity.

The important factor of placing and specialization is a presence of markets of agricultural production distribution. It is advantageous to increase the production of those types of products; there is permanent demand on that, enterprises. Moreover, vice versa, frequent problems with the sale of certain types of products result in abandonment of enterprises from their production.

Provision of labor resources, their qualification quite often influences as a restrictive factor for development of certain industries of agricultural production, and first those that are labor intensive at the present level of mechanization of productive processes. In the conditions of Ukraine a vegetable-growing, watermelon, flax cultivation, gardening, production of sugar beets, belong to such industries.

Specialization of agricultural enterprises is determined taking into account the scientifically reasonable placing of agriculture on territory of country. At establishment to specialization of economies, consider first by implementation of contractual obligations on the sale of agricultural foods. On specialization of production, the complex of economic and natural factors influences in agricultural enterprises. Among them one of basic there are demand and standard of prices on an agricultural produce, that can considerably stimulate the production of those or other types of products or restrain expansion of certain industries.

Development and placing of industry belong to the economic factors to specialization. From one side, the increase of cities, development of industrial centers, require the increase of production of agricultural goods, and from the second - scientific and technical progress strengthens the material and technical base of agricultural production.

It is therefore necessary to provide the high rates of development of industry, especially industries, which supply to agriculture a technique, electric power, chemistry, assist further intensification of production in agricultural enterprises and others like that. The increase of producing of tractors, combines, cars, different agricultural machines assists the increase of level fund of equipped of economies.

The important factor of perfection of specialization of agricultural production is development of his mechanization and electrification that assists creation of highly mechanized and electrified enterprises, farms and complexes.

The economic factor of specialization of agriculture is also his chemistry. Fertilizer of soils and use of facilities of defense of plants - the constituents of the scientifically reasonable system of agriculture, deepening of specialization of agricultural production and increase of his efficiency are important.

For specialization of agricultural production a large value is had transport, transport terms. Without a transport, it is impossible to decide the question of placing of products, change in specialization, delivery of products from other districts and other. If production of certain type of products cost together with charges on delivery in this district higher from charges on the production of her in other district, then better not to leave her, but produce in place.

The important factor of specialization of agricultural production is material well-being of him by labor resources. It touches those types of products, the production of that yetis mechanized not enough, but the expenses of direct labor on unit of products are large.

An important role development of specialization is play by natural factors, in particular, quality of soils, amount of precipitations, temperature condition and others like that. In practice of agricultural production there are difficult cooperation and inter conditionality of economic and natural factors that affect his specialization. Through large territory of Ukraine, variety of economic and ground-climatic terms the differentiated going is needed near specialization of production in separate zones, districts and agricultural enterprises.

1.2 Methodology of determination is specialization of agricultural enterprises and indexes of her economic efficiency

Specialization of production in agricultural enterprises is characterize by many indexes basic from that is a structure of commodity products. Therefore, the value of certain industry of agricultural enterprise is determine by part of her commodity products in the general amount of commodity products of economy.

The additional indexes of specialization of production are: structure of gross products; a structure of expenses of labor is in industries; a structure of capital, capital investments goods is for the row of years; structure of sowing areas; structure of population of animals and other.

Basic index inwardly economic specialization of agricultural enterprises is a structure of gross products.

To the economies that is specialized on the production of goods of one industry, it follows to take those in that this industry gives over to the 50 percent commodity products. From here an economy can be a cattle breeder, pig breeding, grain-growing. If industry gives two kinds to the products, then specialization of economy is determined after the prevailing type of products(for example, milk meat cattle breeding, meat wool sheep breeding). If two industries of economy give 2/3 and more commodity products(one a chop the mare not less than as 25 and not more than 50 percent then such economies attribute to specialized on two industries. Specialization they are determined after industry the products of that prevail(for example, sugar beet milk, cattle breeding flax cultivation direction of economy).

To those, that is specialized on three industries, take economies that get from these industries 75 percent more commodity products commodity products, thus each of these industries must produce not less than 24 percent no more to the 33,3 percent commodity products. Other enterprises are attribute to those, where certain specialization was yet fold.

The level of specialization of economy is determined after part by the costs of commodity products of main industries in a total worth him commodity products. Deeply specialized enterprises that produce one type of commodity products (poultry factories, economies from fattening to the sapling/plc. of cattle, pigs, vegetable factories and others like that) mainly have a high level of specialization. Thus, part of commodity products of mainindustrypresentseconomiesoverthe50percentgeneralcosts of commodity products. Than less of main and additional industries, that comparatively higher is a level of specialization of enterprise.

The level of specialization is determined after a coefficient that is expected after a formula:

Кс =100 / (?Ут(2і-1)),

where Кс- coefficient of specialization; Ут - part of commodity products of separate industries; i- is a sequence number of part of commodity products at a certain row. Value of Кс to 0,20 testifies to the low level of specialization of economy; 0,21-0,40 - middle; 0,41-0,60 - high; 0,61 and anymore - for deep specialization of economy.

Distinguish two basic progress of specialization trends. The first is characterize by that an economy is specialized on the production of a few types of commodity products: one- two in a plant-grower and one-two in a stock raising at simultaneous development of a few additional and subsidiary industries. This tendency presently is basic. The second tendency becomes known in that an enterprise is specialized on the production of one type of products: beef, pork, meat of bird, eggs, vegetables, fruit and others like that. Many economies carry out a production on industrial basis, for them both organization of production with a complete cycle and wide development of between economic connections and cooperation is characteristic. Especially considerable development was purchase by cooperation in creation of large enterprises from a production of meat.

For many agricultural enterprises the peculiar combined production, ides with a few industries at their certain combination. It is thus necessary correctly to combine main, additional and subsidiary industries. Rational combination of industries in agricultural enterprises is determined by such principles: the greatest efficiency of production; most complete and correct use of ground-climatic and economic terms of economy; reduction to seasonality of the use of labor force, her more complete and even use for a year; utilization of wastes and side products of one industries other; acceleration of money in an economy and other. For the deeper ground of rational combination of industries in an economy, all wider apply economies mathematical methods with the use of modern electro-calculable machines.

Perfection of specialization of agricultural enterprises, her deepening - one of ways of achievement of higher economic results economies: increase of production of good sand increase of efficiency of her production volume. At the decision of questions of rational specialization of production specializations, that represent efficiency of the use of earth, labor force, productive funds, and current outlays, use a criterion and system of indexes of efficiency in agricultural enterprises.

For the deeper economic evaluation of specialization that was fold, and perspective specialization of agricultural enterprises, use such system of indexes: increase of gross products, gross receipt and net profit calculating on unit of the landed area(agricultural lands, plough-land), expenses of labor, productive funds, capital investments, current outlays.

Comparative efficiency of a variants of specialization that is developed on a prospect, determine after a formula:

Е = П / (3т+КеКв)

where Е - is efficiency of variant of specialization; П - is an increase of gross products; Зт - is an increase of current outlays; Ке - is a normative coefficient of efficiency; Кв- is an increase of sum of capital investments.

The basic tasks of perfection of inwardly economic specialization are: maximal increase of production of goods in every subdivision, effective use of productive funds and labor resources, increase of indexes of efficiency of production. At planning of in warmly economic specialization, it follows to take into account technological copulas between sub divisions, to envisage rational combination of industries. Every productive subdivision (area, workshop, brigade, and farm) must have certain specialization taking into account the complex of terms of work of subdivisions of economy.

Part II. Modern the state and economic efficiency of agricultural production in the conditions of his specialization

2.1 Productive resources of economy and their use

Agriculture of Ukraine as well as other industries of production, found oneself-hard up. An exit from him is possible after the decision of many problems of structurally productive character in an economy. In connection with it on the first plan the necessity of realization of analysis of factors of the economy growing, exposure of untapped backlogs of increase of efficiency of productive resources is pulled out.

A question of study of the effective use of productive resources always was actual. But the last years he does not get the proper value. To that end it is important correctly and in number to measure every type of resources and objectively to estimate him.

The high performance and rational use of productive resources is taken to the decision of important task as increase of the productivity of animals. In the cattle breeding the presence of feed base, level of feeding and maintenance of animals, main tenancy of fruit, influence on the productivity.

The increase of efficiency of agricultural production largely depends and from the improvement of the use of material resources, increase fund of return.

Private agricultural LTD. "AroKim" is located in the village of Mala Divutsya, Prilutskogo of district, Chernihiv area. An area is located in north part of country in the Polesya and forest-steppe zones. Black earth, and grey and light grey soils, prevail in the groundcover. The climate of region is mildly continental. Ordinary temperature of air 7,2°C. Middle temperature of the coldest month of January - 7°C. The middle temperature of July presents 19°C. Maximal 30°C, minimum - 20°C. Period withatemperature10°C presents 145-170 days. Precipitations a 599 mm in a year.

No less important for development of economy are such indexes, as a presence of resources and remoteness from the points of realization of certain types of products. In addition, the economic terms of production are characterize by sizes and organizational structure, specialization and branch structure, intensity of production.

By a summarizing economic category, that characterizes efficiency of economy, activity on the whole and separate industries there is profitability of enterprise or production. Her level is determined by the percentage ratio of income to the complete realized unit cost. With the increase of income and decline of prime price, profitability of production rises. And vice versa, exceeding of charges on the production of goods of cattle breeder above the sum of money profit yield from her realization, the profitableness of production means.

A norm of income is a percentage ratio of income to the lump sum of cost of present the fixed and circulating assets productions (including her remuneration of labor) that participate in the production of goods. The norm of income testifies to efficiency of the use of productive funds and together with him specifies on possibility of increase of their sum due to piling up from incomes.

Economic efficiency of the cattle breeding determines the calculation of level of a fund is a return of all productive funds (or only basic) busy in his industries also. He is measured by the cost of gross products that is on 1грн. basic, and also capital and circulating assets.

In agriculture earth is a main mean of production, without that the process of production of goods of plant-grower and stock-raising is impossible. Earth at the same time is an object and means of labor, and thus and by the main mean of production.

In a next table will conduct the analysis of the landed resources of LTD. "AgroKim".

Table 2.1

Calculate the structure of agricultural land of LTD. "AgroKim"

Land

Basic year

Actual year.

Actual уear to % of basic

ha

%

ha

%

Total

643

100,00

14721

100,00

22 to times

Arable land

643

100,00

14721

100,00

22 to times

Analyzing the indexes of this table see that for investigated period the area of agricultural lands of LTD. "АГРОКІМ" increased. Yes, in basic year agricultural lands counted 643 hectare, and in actual year - 14721 hectare, id est the area of agricultural lands increased in 22 to times. In the structure of agricultural lands all place is occupied by plough-land that increased accordingly in 22 to times. It testifies to high thrown open of earth in an economy and them the intensive use.

Also an important question is determination of composition of labor resources and structure of their use of LTD. "AgroKim".

Table 2.2

Labor resources of LTD. "AgroKim" and their use.

Indicator

2012 year

2013 year

2014 year

2014 уear to % of 2012 year

Average number of employess, people

10

202

302

30 to times.

Including: plant

10

202

302

30 to times.

Livestock

-

-

-

X

It is exhaus an agricultural production total, thous. of man-hours

16,2

363,6

557,40

34 to times

Including: plant

16,2

363,6

557,40

34 to times

It is exhaus 1 worker for a year, of man-hours.

1,62

1,80

1,85

1,14 to times

Including: plant

1,62

1,80

1,85

1,14 to times

Coefficient of the use human resources, total

0,9

1,0

0,95

Х

Including: plant

0,9

1,0

0,95

Х

Doing the analysis of data of table see a 2.2 LTD. "AgroKim" and efficiency of their use increase of average annual quantity of workers: in comparison of actual year to 2012 year to it grew in 30 to times. The amount of man-hours exhaust increased in an agricultural production on 17,89%.

The fixed assets are materially-material values that operate in an unchanging natural form during great while and lose the cost for to parts. Among them distinguish the fixed productive assets - capital goods that during great while participate in the process of production keep a naturally-material form and carry the cost parts on the prepared product.

Indexes characterize the level of equipped of economy the fixed assets:

- A capital is material well-being is a cost of basic capital of the agricultural setting that is on 100 hectare agricultural lands;

- A capital is armed labors are a cost of basic capital of the agricultural setting calculating on one average annual worker.

Economic efficiency of the use of the fixed assets is characterized by indexes :

- A capital is a returnis a cost of gross products calculating on a 1 UAN. of the fixed assets of the agricultural setting;

- A capital is a capacity is an index, reverse a capital is a return;

- A norm of income is a percentage ratio of income to the sum of the fixed assets of the agricultural setting and floating capital.

Therefore will consider the provision of enterprise productive capital in a table 2.3:

Table 2.3

Dynamics of basic capital provision of enterprise and his use of LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicator

2012 year

2013 year

2014 year

2014 уear to % of 2012 year

Average cost of capital assets, thous. UAN

682,85

32309,6

65831

96 to times

per 1 hа of agricultural land

1,06

2,34

4,47

4 to times

per 1 hа of average worker

67,29

159,95

217,98

3 to times

Capital is a return, UAN

1,02

2,6

1,5

1,5 to times

Capital is a capacity products, UAN

0,98

0,38

0,67

68,37

Norm of income,%

X

7

X

X

Conducting the analysis of the fixed productive assets in LTD. "AgroKim" and efficiency of their use (table. 2.3), see that the cost of basic capital grew in 96 to times, and also a capital is a return in comparison in the percent of actual year to basic year to grew in 1,5 to times. A capital is a capacity products of LTD. "AgroKim" grew on 68,37%. The norm of income presents: in 2013 year - 7%, and in basic and actual year we can not define as we look after un profitableness of enterprise.

After a world tendency all enterprises have certain specialization, id est repressing development of production of one or a few types of products for that in this place is relatively the best naturally economic terms.

Will investigate the structure of money receivables from realization of products in LTD. "AgroKim":

Table 2.4

A structure of money receivables is from realization of products in LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicators

Basic year

Actual year

Actual уear to % of basic

thos. UAN

%

thos.

UAN

%

Grain

2563,1

99,85

125273,6

88,33

49 to times

Wheat

-

-

5014,7

3,54

X

Rye

491,9

19,16

-

-

X

Buckwheat

30,0

1,17

-

-

X

A corn is on grain

1936,6

75,45

120258,9

84,79

62 to times

Oat

99,0

3,86

-

-

X

Other grain

5,6

0,22

-

-

X

Sunflower

-

-

24,0

0,02

X

Soy

-

-

3959,0

2,79

X

Other products of plant

3,8

0,15

11,8

0,01

45 to times

Total on a plant-grower

2566,9

100,0

129268,4

91,14

50 to times

Total

2566,9

100,00

141829,9

100,00

55 to times

In the structure of money receivables from realization of commodity products in LTD. "AgroKim" in basic year a considerable place occupies growing of corn on grain 75,45%. Analysing actual year, we see that the bulk of money receivables we get from realization of corn on grain also 84,79%.

It is thus possible to say, that LTD. "AgroKim" is specialized on grown corn on grain.

Will define the results of economic activity of LTD. "AgroKim" in a next table:

Table 2.5

Results of economic activity of LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicator

2012year

2013 year

2014 year

2014 уear to % of 2012 year

Cost of gross products, thous.UAN

693,95

84198,60

99926,80

143 to times

per 1 hа of agricultural land

1,08

6,09

6,79

6 to times

per 1 hа of average worker

69,40

416,82

330,88

4,8 to times

per 1 UAN of production cost

0,32

1,01

0,85

2,7 to times

Gross products, thous.UAN

-1260,5

-5460

45762,6

Х

per 1 hа of agricultural land

-1,96

-0,39

3,11

Х

per 1 hа of average worker

-126,05

-27,03

151,53

Х

Profitability, %

-32,93

-9,65

47,64

Х

Estimating the results of economic activity of LTD. "AgroKim" defined the cost of gross products and her rates of development. In 2014 year to 2012 year to relatively grew in 143 to times. Gross revenue: it is observed only in actual year is a 45762,6 thousand UAN, and in 2012 year and 2013 year he is absent.

2.2 A dynamics of development of production of corn is on grain in an economy

Estimating general activity of enterprise, it is impossible to skip the indexes of economic efficiency of production of agricultural enterprise.

The increase of economic efficiency of agrarian enterprises envisages the increase of production and upgrading of agricultural produce at simultaneous reduction of expenses to labor and money on unit of products. The decision of this problem is indissolubly related to further all-round intensification of agricultural production, in the process of that the increase of the productivity of agricultural cultures and productivity of cattle and bird is provided. In modern terms an agricultural production must develop mainly on the basis of intensification that is basic direction of increase of him economic efficiency.

The ways of increase of efficiency of agricultural production envisage the complex of such basic measures : improvement of the use of earth and increase of her fertility; introduction of complex mechanization and computer-aided manufacturing; increase of level of provision of economies productive funds and improvement of their use; introduction of intensive and resource of keeping technologies and industrial methods of production; upgrading and maintenance of mine-out products; deepening of specialization and strengthening of concentration of production is on the basis of between economic co-operation and agroindustrial integration; deployment of progressive forms of organization of production and remuneration of labor.

In next tables will analyses the dynamics of production of corn on grain and economic efficiency of production of corn on grain.

Table 2.6

A dynamics of production of corn is on grain of LTD "AgroKim"

Indicator

Year

2014уear to % of 2012 year

2012

2013

2014

Area sown,hа

181

7259

13117

72 to times

Yield, c/ha:

14,70

57,59

65,32

4 to times

Gross harvest corn is on a grain, centners

2660

418051

856840

322 to times

Sold corn is on a grain, centners

22707

77455

531051

23 to times

The level of commodity production, %

853,65

18,53

61,98

Х

Analyzing the indexes of dynamics of production of corn on grain on LTD. "AgroKim" during 2012 - 2014 years there is a considerable increase of area of sowing in 72 to times.

Productivity from 1 hectare, it is compared 2014 year to 2012 year to grew in 4 to times.

The analysis of gross harvest of corn on grain showed an increase in 322 to times in comparing to 2012 year. Sold of corn on grain on years presents: 2012 year are 22707 centners, 2013 year are 77455 centners, 2014 year - 531051 centners and it in 23 to times more than per 2012 year.

2.3 Economic efficiency of specialization is on the production of agricultural products

Table 2.7

Influence of factors on the changes of gross collection of corn on grain on LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicators

Basic year

Actual year

Deviation (+) , ( - )

Area sown,hа

181

13117

12936

Yield, c/ha:

14,70

65,32

50,62

Gross harvest corn is on a grain, centners

2660

856840

854180

Gross harvest corn is on a grain at the area of actual and yield of base year, centners

192819,9

X

Changes in the gross harvest corn is on the grain initiated by:- area sown

190159,9

X

- yield

664020,1

X

A problem of increase of efficiency of agroindustrial production is a determinative of economic and social development of society. Efficiency of production as economic category represents the action of objective economic laws that appears in effectiveness of production. She is a that form in that realized, aim of public production. Economic efficiency shows an eventual useful effect from application of capital and direct-labor goods, and also, combined their investments. In this connection it is necessary to distinguish such concepts, as an effect and economic efficiency. An effect is a result of those or other measures carried out in an agricultural production.

Economic efficiency of production is determined by attitude of the got results toward the charges of capital and direct-labor goods. Efficiency of production is a summarizing economic category quality description of that is represented in high effectiveness of the use of living and labor in capital goods.

Economic efficiency of stock-raising means the receipt of maximal amount of products from one head of cattle at the least production inputs of labor and money unit of products. Efficiency of stock-raising includes correlation of results and charges of production not only, reflected also in her, quality of products and his ability to satisfy those or other consumer need. Thus upgrading of agricultural produce requires the additional expenses of living and labor.

In agriculture the increase of economic efficiency matters very much not only in the decision of food problem but also in the increase of welfare of all population.

The special value acquires the increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production in the conditions of market relations and competition, when a that commodity producer that has more subzero prime price and high quality of products wins.

Will conduct the analysis of economic efficiency of production of corn on grain on LTD. "AgroKim", in particular will define the prime price of corn on grain.

Table 2.8

Identify factors on influence on the formation of the cost of 1 centner corn on grain on LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicators

Basic year

Actual year

Deviation (+), (-)

Expenditures on 1 ha of planted area, UAN

895,19

851,29

-43,9

Yield, centners per ha.

14,70

65,32

50,62

Self cost of 1 centner of corn on grain grain, UAN

135,16

147,32

12,16

Self cost of 1 centner of corn on grain at a expenditures of actual and productivity of base year, UAN

57,19

Changes self cost of 1 centner of corn on grain grain, UAN initiated by

- production cost

-77,25

- yield

89,41

The analysis of table showed that productive charges on 1 hectare in basic year is 895,19 UAN were made sowing, and in actual year is 851,29 UAN, that on 43,9 UAN less than in basic year. Productivity from 1 hectare increased on a 50,62 UAN metric center in actual year comparatively with basic year. Also the prime price of a 1centner of corn diminished on grain on 12,16 UAN, these tables showed that the prime price of a 1centner of corn on grain at the charges of actualyear is presented 57,19 UAN. Also 1centner of corn analyzed the changes of prime price on grain due to the charges of production and she presents - 77,25 UAN, and due to the productivity - the change of prime price presents 89,41 UAN. It is possible to say that the productivity grew due to the improvement of production, in particular increase of volumes of productive charges on 1 hectare.

Table 2.9

Determine the structure of production cost and the size of expenditure on 1 centner of corn on grain of LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicator

Base year

Actual year

грн

%

грн.

%

Laborcostthous. UAN

17,3

1,07

5296,4

4,74

Social deductionsthous. UAN

6,4

0,39

1947,9

1,74

Directmaterialcostthous. UAN

1595,2

98,45

84860,8

76,0

Including :

seed and planting material thous. UAN

148,2

9,29

25616,8

30,19

Fertilizers thous. UAN

-

-

18520,3

21,82

fuelthous. UAN

-

-

12651,1

14,91

Payment for services and work thous. UAN

1443,0

90,46

7623,9

8,98

Other material cost thous. UAN

4

0,25

20448,7

24,1

Depreciation of capital assets thous. UAN

0,6

0,04

3051,1

2,73

Overall expenditures thous. UAN

0,8

0,05

16507,0

14,78

Production cost- total thous. UAN

1620,3

100,00

111663,2

100,00

Analysing a production cost and the size of the articles of LTD. "AgroKim", evidently, that in basic year a most percent of charges is on direct material charges. In particular 90.46% on payment of services and works; a next place in the system of indexes is occupied: seed and planting material - 9,29% and 0,25% are other material charges. The least percent is on depreciation of inconvertible assets - 0,04%. On the whole a productive prime price in basic year presented a 1620,3 thousand UAN... The analysis of data of actual year shows that seed and seed and planting material in the structure of the articles of LTD. "AgroKim" fold are 30,19%, charges on the remuneration of labor - 4,74%%. The least percent occupies a contribution on social measures - 1,74%, and depreciation of capital assets that present 2,73%. General productive prime price -1centner corn on grain of thousand UAN in actual year for LTD. "AgroKim" presents a 111663,2 thousand UAN, that on a 110042,9 thousand UAN more than in basic year.




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