Meat - one of the most important products in the human diet and the most popular meat in our region. Chemical and physical methods of preserving meat and meat products. Canned meat by freezing in brine. Preservation of cold. Canning high temperatures.
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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
Kazakh Agro Technical University. S.Seifullin
Fulfilled: Baigan A.
Meat - one of the most important products in the human diet
Meat - one of the most important foods in the diet of the vast majority of people. It saturates the fastest, contains many vitamins and minerals, a large number of indispensable for our body protein.
That's just one kind of meat has its own characteristics, useful properties and contraindications. What kind of meat is most useful, what effect it has on the body and what are the contraindications.
With regard to contraindications, there recommendations mainly relate to any kind of meat - and above all: do not abuse. The older a person becomes, the less it needs meat, the greater the need to limit yourself. Most useful to bake or cook the meat for a couple. But fry in butter - not recommended, otherwise formed carcinogens. You also need to choose the meat as much as possible of young animals, it is less harmful fats.
One advantage of the horse meat that is the most environmentally friendly meat. Horses grown in pure steppes, in the wild, not in a dirty stall obkalyvaya antibiotics as cows and pigs. The protein contained in Konin, perfectly balanced amino acid composition. This meat lowers blood cholesterol, regulates metabolism, neutralizes the effects of radiation. It contains large amounts of vitamins and minerals very necessary to our body: potassium, sodium, phosphorus, iron, copper, magnesium, amino acids, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B, A, PP, E. In addition, horse meat and it is not alergenov It can be used for baby food. Not surprisingly, the meat so loved nomads: horse meat is easy to replace a varied diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits and cereals, such as settled peoples engaged in gardening and cultivation of cereals.
The most popular meat in the world. It contains all the essential amino acids for human organism. This meat - an unrivaled source of nutrients. 200 grams of meat can be replaced by a liter of milk. Use beef in that it carries out the neutralization with hydrochloric acid, digestive enzymes, and other irritants contained in the gastric juice, thereby normalizing the acidity in the stomach and intestines. This meat is quite a lot of minerals, first of all - zinc and iron, for which the beef is very much appreciated. Many in the meat and vitamins - especially B and E, H and PP.
Needless beef does not hurt if you do not eat it too much. The danger of this meat is that cows can be grown in polluted areas, feed and animal feedstuffs stabbing antibiotics. "Mass" meat mass animal breeding method for mass - alas.
It is the champion of low cholesterol. The fat in lamb is certainly there, but it is much less than in pork, and digest it much better. Furthermore, mutton contains lecithin, which normalizes the body's cholesterol metabolism. That is why different diets include lamb.
Mutton fat is often used as the prevention and treatment of colds.
Lamb valuable and vitamin-mineral composition, it has a potassium, magnesium, iodine and iron, more meat is rich in vitamins of group B.
On the other hand, the lamb is quite hard to digest, so people with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract is better to refrain from its use.
Poultry meat is in demand and greater consumption, as of poultry products can be prepared as early as 4 - 6 months of age, in addition to meat and poultry can be obtained from the eggs.
The chemical composition of poultry meat from different animals for slaughter higher content of biologically valuable proteins and a low-melting fat.
The chemical composition of poultry
- Water: 50 - 70%
- Protein: 16 - 22%
- Fat: 16 - 45%
As well as poultry meat contains vitamins and minerals.
Muscle tissue contains much less bird connective tissue in contrast to the meat of slaughtered animals.
Classification of poultry carcasses
1. Type (chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys)
2. Age (chickens and hens, ducks and ducklings, goslings and geese, turkeys and turkey);
3. A method of processing:
- Gutted poultry carcasses - removed all the internal organs and legs on the tarsal joint, head to the 2nd cervical vertebra and the skin on the neck, thus can be left lungs and kidneys.
- Polupotroshennye poultry carcasses - intestines removed.
4. Quality processing (carcasses of all kinds of birds should be bled qualitatively, the skin should be clean and free of abrasions, bruises, tears and remnants of the pen, have polupotroshennoy entire interior of the bird to be treated, the beak and mouth should be cleaned from the remnants of food and Blood)
5. Thermal state;
Chemical and physical methods of preserving meat and meat products
It is believed that it is best to use those products that do not contain preservatives. But if you stick to this point of view, the question immediately arises: what of table salt, acetic, citric and other organic acids or compounds which are used for food preservation since ancient times, and without which it would be impossible to use many kinds of products?
Obviously, the thing is the amount and type of preservatives and comprehensive knowledge of their mechanisms of action. In order to clearly explain this, we try to give examples of the use of preservatives in the world.
The essence of combined food preservation methods is to stabilize the various parameters such as a change in water activity (AW), pH, addition of one or more anti-microbial reagents, temperature pasteurization or sterilization, etc.
Successful selection of these parameters can produce a synergistic effect in inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and maintaining the properties of meat products at room temperature.
The use of inorganic preservatives and various technological methods to preserve the freshness of meat. The use of inorganic and other preservatives sufficient detail in . Therefore, we will focus only on those examples, which are not included in these literary sources. For example, in one study following formulation patented mixture for salting and preserving meat (%): NaCI?50, MgCI2 <30, CaCl2?10 and KCl ~ 10. Aqueous sodium chloride and sodium citrate mixed with minute particles containing smoke for smoking, is administered into the artery of farm animals before slaughter using specially designed pumps. Smokehouse smoke and preservatives adsorb proteins meat.
Myasy salted pieces during cutting and subsequent packaging under vacuum can contain up to 104... 106 bacteria / g. Moreover, the development of bacteria may take place after 2... 3 weeks storage of meat at 5 ° C.
It is noted that the irradiation of vacuum packaged meat radiation doses of 1, 2 and 4 Mrad reduces initial concentration of microorganisms of 1.1... 5 times.
This changes the flavor and taste of meat. However, at doses 2 and 4 Mrad these changes were either mild or moderate. Meat, a dose of 2 Mrad irradiated, may have surface damage without signs of infection within 5 weeks at 5 ° C. It is possible to preserve the fresh meat of pure oxygen (O2) under pressure. In this processing, the product is completely removed from the carbon dioxide (CO 3) and the meat itself becomes bright red color. You can change the feed rate of oxygen and time of contact with the meat. After the process of oxygen (O2) control its rate of evaporation from meat, since at very high speed of evaporation can occur freeze meat. There is a method for using active oxygen, and ozone dissolved in water and converted into ice. This ice can be used as a food preservative. Furthermore, such ice can also be used for sterilization and deodorization of foods. Oxygen must be removed from the product. To do this, it is advisable to use a special mixture to remove oxygen from the packaged products consisting of 100 parts of the activated iron powder, 10...40 parts Al2O3 or zinc oxide and / or titanium, and does not contain water.
The mixture displaces oxygen at low temperatures and does not deteriorate with use. Removal O2 prevents discoloration of meat products during prolonged storage. For these purposes using powder consisting of 100 parts of the activated iron treated with a solution of NaCl, which was dried and mixed with 20 parts of Al (OH) 3 and Al2O3 and sealed together with the ham from the laminated film.
The same approach of gas adsorption media, adhere to and some other researchers. They believe that the packaging fresh meat in the absence of oxygen, which promotes the formation of brown metmyoglobin muscle can also occur in an atmosphere with a low oxygen content, which is observed when using the vacuum package, i.e. under anaerobic conditions.
Bacterial contamination is also reduced in an atmosphere comprising predominantly CO2. However, to prevent contamination of the packaged meat requires the provision of conditions for its storage at low temperature, which in some cases is not respected manufacturers.
Earlier publications on the subject, the focus of researchers was aimed at eliminating the contamination of meat and food products, in subsequent works was taken into account not only the microbial contamination, but also the quality of meat.
Canned meat by freezing in brine
One of the methods of preservation - freeze the meat products in the brine. For example, frozen meat products in an alcoholic brine at minus 40 ° C, then centrifuged to remove the brine and left at a temperature of from 0 to -30 ° C for preservation.
The icy crust on the surface of the product to protect them from microbial contamination. Brine Composition (%): ethanol - 69 Sorbitol - 0.1, succinic acid - 0.1, NaCl - 3 and water - 27.
And preserving meat tenderizing alkali metal salts are also described in the literature. To this meat treated chlorides, carbonates, alkali metal bicarbonates, lactic acid and / or alkali metal lactate. Such meat remains soft for a long time.
Some studies suggested for preserving meat processing its carbon monoxide. Raw meat is preserved in an atmosphere of CO, which not only prevents contamination of meat, but also preserves its color and freshness. Thus, the beef should be kept under an atmosphere of CO for 30 min at 15 ° C.
Raw beef meat or canned fish by injection using a syringe CO in sealed bags with the product. The method is cheap, easy and safe. Canned meat gets good color and flavor and lasts for a long time.
When preserving meat mix hot gases charcoal heated at 850... 1200 ° C, and the resulting hot gas containing CO, hydrogen, nitrogen, CO2, and other compounds, is passed through cold water. The meat processed in such a preservative, has no unpleasant taste and odor and is maintained for a long time. For these purposes may also be used and liquid smoke, which not only is the preservative, and an antioxidant and prevents discoloration of meat without destroying its palatability.
Study of the microorganisms contained in the beef sausage during preparation and storage at 4 ° C showed that the steam cooking sausages for 45 minutes is effective in reducing microbial contamination. Finished sausages may be stored in a vacuum package or in CO2 environment for 31 days at a temperature of 4 ± 1 ° C.
One of the most common preservatives and antioxidants are nitrite that should be applied in a strictly limited doses. Potential damage to these compounds neutralized their high protective effect against bacteria forming toxins, such as, in particular, as Clostridium botulinum. The antimicrobial effect of nitrite is hard enough.
It is known that bacterial action have not themselves nitrite, and their derivatives formed during cooking. Of the large number of components nitrosyl most potent inhibitory effects on Clostridium botulinum exhibits anion salt [Fe4S3 (NO) 7]. This component is active against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria that cause spoilage of meat.
The use of organic acids, lactic acid bacteria and fungi as preservatives. Organic acids and their many derivatives are now probably the most widely used preservatives that are the subject of many publications. Thus, the chicken breasts with skin treated with a 1% aqueous solution of acetic acid, after which they were packaged in airtight containers which were filled with a mixture consisting of 70% CO2 and 30% N2, and kept for 21 days at 4 ° C. Then the samples were dissected and analyzed. As a control, chicken breasts, not treated with acetic acid.
Samples treated with 1% solution of CH3COOH, had a weak pleasant smell of vinegar. The smell of untreated samples was less pleasant. Thus, prior to packaging of meat products it is expedient to spray with a 1% solution of acetic acid.
Good preservative for poultry carcasses buffer solution is prepared by mixing 60% lactic acid and 20% sodium lactate and 20% water. 2% aqueous solution of buffer (pH 2.9 at 40 ° C) was sprayed on the poultry carcass and thereby prevent their contamination for 14 days. In this case, the meat has good organoleptic properties.
It is noted that pre-treatment of meat products with a mixture solution of 2% sodium lactate and 0.5% sodium acetate and 2% sodium lactate and 0.25% of glucono-в-lactone before packaging in an airtight package in an environment of 80% nitrogen and 20% CO2 It protects the product from Listeria infection within four weeks at 5 ° C, and also retains the color of meat products. The curing of the mixture of acetic, propionic and lactic acids on beef stored in a refrigerator is described repeatedly in the literature. Purified beef was cut into 15 pieces and divided into 4 groups - three pieces in each group. Pieces of beef from groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were treated with 1, 2, 3 and 4% of a mixture of acetic and lactic acids. As a control examined meat group 5.
This treatment was performed with other pieces of meat but with a mixture of acetic and propionic acids. Changes in microbial content, color and smell of meat were examined after 0; 24; 72 and 168 hours. It was established that the bacteriostatic and bactericidal action of mixtures of acids increased with increasing concentration, but its influence is reduced by increasing the duration of exposure. Both mixtures exerted stronger antibacterial effect on gram-negative microorganisms. 3% -s mixture of acetic and lactic acids significantly reduced the number of bacteria without affecting the color and taste of beef. This mixture has been recommended to prevent contamination of beef steaks during storage for seven days in a refrigerator at 7 ± 1 SS.
It was found that treatment of minced pork preservative mixture of lactic and propionic acids significantly decreases the microbial contamination, without affecting the odor and color, but to decrease its water binding capacity. Antibacterial effect of the mixture increases with increasing acid concentration and decreases with increasing meat shelf life in the refrigerator.
Various characteristics of the lactic acid bacteria used as starter cultures and for other purposes are given in . Among these bacteria are used Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostos, Pediococcus, Corinobacterium and Enterococcus. The data on the joint use of nisin to increase the validity of these cultures.
Lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus helveticus K4 as a liquid or powder have been used as preservatives for meat products. They suppress the growth of other microorganisms, improved taste and helped to accelerate the ripening of meat.
Application of bacteriocins is presented in , which focuses on the effectiveness of lactic acid bacteria of the genus Carnobacterium and Leuconostos for preserving meat products. We know the existence of enterococci in meat products. Although the pathogenicity of these organisms, studies indicate that enterococci, particularly Enterococcus faecium, exhibit significantly less activity than clinical strains.
Many of enterococci were isolated from minced meat and sausages to get through them enterocin acting as antibacterial agents against pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Application enterocins producing enterococci or purified metabolites was effective when used in the production of fermented sausages and vacuum packing of meat products to prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes intensive and lactic acid bacteria causing stickiness of meat.
Enterocins bakteriotsinogennye and enterococci are apparently alternative replacement for traditional chemical preservatives may also be used to control pathogens in meat products. The new anti-bacterial fungus Askoperon P may be a preservative for foods. The chilled chicken soup Askoperon P at a concentration of 2000 mg / kg of the product prevents the growth and development of the microorganism Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella within 60 days or more.
The high activity of the microorganisms was observed at concentrations of 500... 1000 mg / kg, but only in case of Listeria monocytogenes. However, they no activity was observed with respect to Saccharomices cerevisiae.
Activity Askoperona P lowered when used at 20 ° C, but at a concentration of 2000 mg / kg it is still acting against B. cereus and P. fluorescens.
This anti-bacterial fungus less active chilled cooked meat than raw meat. The cooked meat was particularly effective preservative at a concentration of 2000 mg / g and a temperature 8DC against Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli and P. fluorescens.
Action Askoperona P gram-negative enterobacteria was enhanced with decreasing temperature. It was concluded that for the manifestation of the antibacterial activity of the fungus in the food products at a relatively low temperature required concentration of 2000 mg / kg. It was also found that the stability Askoperona P lowered by lowering the pH <5.5.
It is known that the color of meat are best preserved when using ascorbic acid. However, the treatment of meat with a mixture of propionic acid and ascorbic acid, it was observed that the surface of the meat becomes more light and an increase in lipid oxidation as compared to control.
Furthermore, meat processing acidic solutions in all cases, reduces the water retention capacity of raw meat. The study of recipes for salted pork showed sufficient efficacy following mixture (g): lean pork - 1000 G - 35, vinegar - 100, citric acid - 5, a mixture of dry spices - 35, green curry - 50, mustard oil - 150.
Duration salting ranged from 30 to 120 days. Microbial contamination was not observed. Adding to the mixture of 0.1... 0.2% sodium benzoate, and 200 mg / kg NaNO2 did not have any additional effect on the salted meat.
Proposed to use sodium lactate in an amount of 10... 20 g / kg of pork as an antioxidant and a preservative, which is not inferior to known antioxidants such as benzolgidroksitoluol (BHT) and benzolgidroksianizol (BHA). It is well known that contamination of meat is a problem that is particularly acute in the warm season and in high-temperature conditions of industrial areas.
Inexpensive methods for eliminating such contamination such as using chlorine or organic acids, as being the most effective is lactic acid. An alternative way is the use of lactic acid processing meat lactic acid bacteria, which reduce the microbial contamination of meat without significant changes sensory characteristics at a temperature above 15 ° C.
The data confirmed by different studies. Thus, treatment of meat with lactic acid or sodium lactate in a concentration of 10... 20 g / kg feed thereby reducing pathogens and development of beneficial microflora. Lactic acid appeared unstable Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, but resistant yeast.
In yeast and microbial stability to the action of lactic acid suggested the following order: yeast lactobacilli => PSYCHROTROPHIC Gram-positive bacteria> mesophilic Enterobacteriaceae> Gram-negative bacteria, which proved to be the most sensitive.
The preservative effect of sodium lactate on beef increases with increasing concentration of preservative. The optimum concentration of sodium lactate is apparently 4%. A mixture of sodium lactate antibiotic nisin has a synergistic effect. Preservative efficacy of lump meat appeared as a solution having a pH optimum of 1.9 and consisting of a mixture of lactic, citric and ascorbic acids and sugars. The sugar content of the mixture must be 50... 60%.
Also known is a preservative obtainable on the basis of sorbic acid, sodium benzoate, activated charcoal and water. This practically safe preservative, suitable for preserving meat and fish, and operates for a long time.
Preservative effect of sorbic acid is dedicated to survey , which demonstrates the effectiveness of using both pure sorbates and their combinations with other preservatives to inhibit the growth of microorganisms and the formation of pathogens. Sorbate prevent the formation of odor arising due to the oxidation of fats, and thus prolong the preservation of food.
Even more effective preservative appeared р-alkyl esters of hydroxybenzoic acid. The method of application involves preserving of meat at a temperature no higher than 40... 45? C is the processing of the meat with an aqueous solution containing, for example, a mixture of methyl and propyl р -oksibenzoynoy acid. These esters are well protect the meat from microorganisms, getting into the muscle fibers.
For canning use the low (cooling, freezing) and high temperatures (boiling, drying), physicochemical (Ambassador), and chemicals (smoking) methods. Furthermore, in recent years with the aim of using this freeze drying, irradiating with ultraviolet rays, carbon dioxide, radioactive irradiation and storage in ozone and nitrogen gas.
meat processing preserving canning
Refrigerated processing and storage of meat and meat products at low temperatures in modern conditions is one of the most promising methods of preservation. Using the cold allows for a long time to maintain the high quality of the product, to transport it to the places of production to places of consumption. By lowering the temperature of the meat slows down the rate of flow of the physico-chemical and biochemical processes, the metabolism in the microbial cells. As a result, part of the flora dies, and part of being in a state of suspended animation, temporarily lose the ability to cause adverse effects. When freezing the water contained in the meat goes from liquid to solid, so it can not be used by microorganisms for their livelihoods.
However, even the application of cold during a prolonged period does not provide all deaths microflora, particularly spore-forming, and the toxins produced by the bacteria are not destroyed even after repeated freezing and thawing meat. Moreover, some bacteria can grow at low temperatures. Therefore, the cooling does not stop spoilage of meat, although the development of microflora and, therefore, the processes of decay sharply decelerated. It should be borne in mind that low temperatures are not neutralizing agent meat from infected animals, the pathogenic microflora freeze remains viable.
To properly chilled meat characterized by the presence of brown drying, uniform color, a kind of "meat flavor" homogeneous elastic consistency, meat juice transparent stands with difficulty.
When cooled meat shrinkage occurs, ie reduced weight due to evaporation of moisture from its surface. The first cooling period due to the intense heat exchange mass loss is greater than at the end of the process. Formed on the surface of carcasses and half-carcasses dry crust drying reduces moisture evaporation.
With the existing technique of cooling, storage, transportation of chilled meat is practically possible to keep free of any visible signs of deterioration not more than 7 - 10 days. Increasing the shelf life can be achieved by lowering the temperature by 1 - 2 ° below the cryoscopic (minus 2 - 3 °), ie meat podmorazhivaniya. Meat freezing chamber at -25 °, beef for 6 - 10 hours, pork - 4 - 8, ovine - 2 - 3 hours. At -18 °, the duration of the process is increased by 1.5 - 2 times. After fresh meat is kept overnight at minus 2 °. Storage duration Frostbitten meat in 2 - 3 times greater than cooling. Thus, with minus 2 - 3 ° Frostbitten shelf life of beef 20 - 30 days of poultry carcasses - 40 days.
Store and transport the carcasses can be frostbitten in piles height of 1.5-1.8 m without significant deformation, allowing almost double the load of cameras and vehicles. Fresh meat slightly reduces the initial properties of the product, as the ice enters the small amount of moisture, and irreversible changes in the tissues is not observed. Hydrolysis and oxidation of fat though occur, but these processes are much slower than the chilled meat. When the meat is much stronger podmorazhivaniya suppressed vital functions of microflora and enzyme activity, slowing chemical and physical processes.
To increase the shelf life of chilled meat and Frostbitten can use additional processing carbon dioxide, ultraviolet rays, ozone, radiation, which causes death or slow down the development of microflora.
For long-term storage of frozen meat. This process is characterized by a decrease in temperature of meat and meat down to minus 6 ° C and below. The bulk of the moisture contained in the tissue is converted into a solid state, and therefore stops the activity of microorganisms, drastically slowing enzymatic, chemical and physical processes. At a temperature of minus 1.5 ° in meat freezes 30% moisture, at minus 8 ° - 80 at minus 10 ° - 90 and only at -60 ° all the moisture passes into the solid state. The nature of the formation of ice crystals in the tissues is significantly affected by the rate freeze. In slow freezing (at temperatures in the chamber minus 10 - 15 °), when the rate of discharge of cold negligible tissue produced little nucleation (1 - 2 per muscle fibers), they are located mainly in the intercellular space, where the salt concentration is lower than intracellularly and cryoscopic point is reached faster.
Growth of the crystal size increases the pressure on the membranes of the muscle fibers, and even breaks squeezes them dewatering colloids, which leads to a partial denaturation of the proteins which lose the property of absorbing moisture. The formation of large crystals during freezing - an undesirable, since the volume of meat increased by about 10%, the crystals expand the extracellular space, destroying the connective tissue layer with sharp edges, the muscle fibers are deformed.
Rapid freezing makes the process more economical. It should be noted that to achieve full equalization of temperature in the interior and on the surface of the product may be a meat upon standing for very long periods. Therefore freezing terminated at a time when the average temperature of the meat would be somewhat lower than the temperature of its subsequent storage. The rate of freezing may be increased if the process is carried out in a liquid medium, which increases the heat transfer coefficient of 20 times, or by changing the airflow rate to 10 m / s, when the heat transfer is increased by 3-4 times. Duration of the freezing of pork for about 20-30%, and 60-70% of lamb less than beef.
To freeze the meat carcasses and half carcasses suspended in freezers as well as during cooling. Slow freezing (one - and the two-phase) is performed at a temperature of minus 15-20 ° and the natural circulation of air (0.1 - 0.2 m / s), intensively at minus 23-30 and prompt at minus 30-35 ° and air velocity of 2-4 m / s. The relative humidity in all cases should sostavlyat.90-95%. Duration biphasic slow freezing 40 hours, 26 of intense and fast 16 hours excluding the time of cooling, single-phase - 36, respectively; 24 and 20 hours. Currently, widespread is the freezing of meat in blocks. Using this method, the cost of storage and transportation of their dramatically reduced, reduced to a minimum loss of weight.
Frozen meat is stored under conditions excluding change in its quality and weight, or whether they should be minimized. Carcasses and half-carcasses placed in the cell stacks in height 2.5-3 m in types and categories of fatness. Storage temperature should be no higher than minus 12 °, relative humidity of 95-100%. More suitably, the temperature was equal to -18 °, with mold growth is eliminated.
It is carried out in special drying apparatus, which consists of a drying chamber, a condenser, a vacuum pump, a heater and control instrumentation.
Freeze drying is carried out under vacuum at a temperature below the freezing point of water, which is practically eliminated for enzymatic and chemical processes. Therefore, the meat fully preserves the original properties, change a little taste, smell and color, and the products packed in sealed containers can be stored for a long time.
Subjected to freeze-drying fresh meat obtained from healthy animals, with a minimum of fat and connective tissue. The most suitable is the meat of young animals, which are removed connective tissue formation, fat and bones. Drying the crushed pieces of meat is carried out at a temperature of minus 15-20 ° and a pressure of 133 Pa or lower. This removes up to 90% moisture. Residual moisture was removed under zero temperature within 40-80 °. By the end of the drying humidity is 2-5% meat. Freeze-dried meat products are packed in a gas-tight container (plastic film, cans, etc..). Shelf life at temperatures above zero is 6-8 months.
Canned meat ambassador
Ambassador meat - one of the ways of preserving, which is used alone or in combination with other methods as a necessary element of the process of production of ham, sausages, smoked and others. The range and the name of the products are determined by the type of meat, character and way of salting, or the name of the carcass (ham, bacon, pork loin, etc.). Pork bacon, salted as half-carcasses, half called bacon in the form of boneless breast - boneless bacon. "Salt" products are obtained mainly from pork, rarely beef, lamb and other meats.
The preservative effect of salt provided by the creation of a high osmotic pressure, which contributes to dehydration of microbial cells, as well as bactericidal effects of sodium and chlorine ions in the vital activity of bacteria. The process of salting is based on the physical laws of diffusion. Upon contact of meat with brine exchange diffusion occurs. When this meat is accumulated salt and brine - water-soluble components of meat. With sturdy dehydrated salted meat, which is associated with a higher osmotic pressure brine compared to the osmotic pressure of the meat juices. With increasing salt concentration the degree of dehydration increases and reaches a maximum at 5-7 hours e. If the brine concentration is low, there is a penetration of water into the meat (flooding of the product), thereby increasing its succulence.
Salt acts to a certain extent on the microflora detrimental, especially when its high concentration. However, E. coli, Proteus and Salmonella group find good corned beef and salted. Ambassador canned only fresh, good-quality meat from healthy animals. The higher the temperature of the brine and salt concentration, the faster it penetrates the meat. However, the high temperature is favorable for the development of microflora, the optimum temperature of the solution for salting meat 2-4 °. If salting use high concentrations of salt, meat becomes inedible, even after prolonged soaking, moreover, at the same time there is increased development of salt-tolerant flora. Consequently, the salt should be used in moderation.
Depending on the salt content of salted distinguish (14-16%), a normal (18%) and saline (20%) Brine. The concentration of the brine should not be below 12%, otherwise the product is spoiled in the course of salting. The disadvantages of wet salting are considerable loss of proteins (they go into the brine) and high humidity curing, which greatly reduces the duration of its storage.
By surface treatment is meant smoked meat substances contained in the smoke smokehouse, which is produced by the incomplete combustion of wood. For smoking most suitable smoke produced, with limited access of air during combustion of wood. This smoke is made up of gas, vapor, liquid and solid phases. The chemical composition of the smoke is extremely complex, it is composed of phenols, aldehydes, ketones, - organic acids, alcohols, gum, ash, soot and others, many of which have antibacterial properties. Along with valuable for smoking in a smoke contains substances that do not participate in smoking (gaseous fraction) or degrade the quality of the product (carbon black), or even harmful (methyl alcohol, carcinogenic hydrocarbons and others.). For the best is smoked the smoke produced by burning sawdust and shavings of deciduous trees - beech, oak, birch, alder, maple, ash. Do not use conifers, as they give an unpleasant resinous smell of meat products, dark color and bitter taste.
Depending on the temperature distinguish cold (18-22 °) and hot (35-45 °) ways of smoking. Cold smoking is used for smoked sausages, it lasts for 3-7 days, and the product has high palatability and good stored as a smoking process it is strongly dewatered, whereby it increases the content of salt. Hot smoking lasts 12-18 hours, it is used in the formulation of boiled and smoked products. The resulting product is less stable at storage.
In meat processing plants products smoked in stationary cameras or avtokoptilkah. The smoking chamber relative humidity maintained at 40-50%. At the same time necessary to monitor the temperature inside the chamber. Before loading into the process chamber past salting meat is soaked at a temperature of 20-30 °, according to the manual, and then dried (heated) at 50 ° C in the chamber. The temperature in the chamber at the beginning of smoking is maintained at 10-12 ° above the temperature at which smoking is carried out.
End of smoking set of organoleptic characteristics of the product. Smoking is considered complete if the product acquires a characteristic brownish-yellow color, sharp specific taste and smell, and its surface becomes dry and shiny. At the end of the smoking product is rapidly cooled and dried 3-15 days depending on the type of product at 12 ° C and relative humidity of 75%.
Yield is 70% of the original weight of the meat. Smoked products stored in packages of up to one month at temperatures close to 0 °. Currently, smoking is the use of wet, when used instead of smoke smoking preparation (liquid), obtained in the processing of smoke condensate. This method allows to develop uniform quality products, excluding product carcinogenic and other harmful substances that exist in the smoke, to intensify the process.
Preserving high temperatures
High temperatures are widely used in the production of canned meat, sausage and ham products. Canning involves high temperature sterilization, cooking and baking.
Sterilization - the main link of the technological process in the production of canned meat. It consists in heat-treated meat at temperatures above 100 °, whereby the microorganisms are destroyed. High temperature (120 °), which is used in the production of meat canned foods, eliminates the ability of spores to germinate. Consequently, heating the meat product to a temperature above 100 ° provides a canned food, which can be stored for 3-5 years.
Cooking is widely used in the production of sausages, ham and other products. During cooking, destroyed up to 99% of the microflora, so it does not guarantee the complete destruction of flora and especially the spores. Therefore, cooked food can not be stored for a long time, they should be implemented quickly. Boiling sausage and ham products is considered complete when the temperature inside the stick reaches 68-70 °. When roasting meat on the hot air (IN-150 °). The temperature in the center of the final product is 68-70 °. When roasting meat juice loses less than when cooked, it has a good taste and a more delicate texture.
Production of canned meat. Canned meats - is a ready-to-eat foods in hermetically sealed tin or glass container followed by a high temperature (sterilization). Canned canning is mainly used for long-term storage of meat and meat products. Canned meat products produced from meat (braised beef, pork, lamb, boiled and fried meat, and others.) Offal (language, kidneys, pates, etc..) Of manufactured goods and semi-finished products (sausage, ham, bacon). Compared with other methods of preserving canned goods can be stored permanently in the usual storage conditions. They are easy to transport and can be used without further treatment.
Before being sent to the storage surface smeared with petroleum jelly jars and placed in boxes. Store canned meat at a temperature of 0-5 ° and a relative humidity of 75%. When storing should not be allowed on the banks of the appearance of rust, which can cause leakage. If canned after production is directed to the implementation, at the bank adhesive label with the name, grade, place of production of the product, batch number and date of issue.
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