Kosovo war and US intervention
The reasons of the beginning of armed conflict in Yugoslavia. Investments into the destroyed economy. Updating of arms. Features NATO war against Yugoslavia. Diplomatic and political features. Technology of the ultimatum. Conclusions for the reasons.
|Рубрика||Международные отношения и мировая экономика|
Ministry of Education
Moldova State University
Kosovo war and US intervention
Table of Contents
- Chapter I. The reasons of the beginning of armed conflict in Yugoslavia
- 1.1 Euro destabilization
- 1.2 Updating of the USA economy at the expense of currency expenses
- 1.3 Investments into the destroyed economy
- 1.4 Updating of arms
- Chapter II. Features NATO war against Yugoslavia
- 2.1 Diplomatic features. Technology of the ultimatum
- 2.2 Political features
- 2.3 Conclusions for the conflict reasons
In 1997, a civil war between Kosovo and Serbia broke over Kosovo's independence. The Serbs, led by Slobodan Milosevic, had decided on a campaign of ethnic cleansing; to rid Kosovo of all Albanian Muslims. By 1998, the US and NATO stepped in to stop the genocide. This may have been the first time any nation had intervened to stop ethnic cleansing and succeeded. The US intervention prevented additional killing, but ethnic tensions still remain between Kosovars and Serbs.
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is most commonly known as Serbia and Montenegro. Within Serbia are two provinces, Kosovo and Vojvodina. In the late 1990's a civil war within Serbia broke out as Kosovo fought for its independence. At one point, Kosovo revolutionaries entertained the thought of merging with nearby Albania. However, Albania's government collapsed just before the real civil war broke out, and Kosovo settled for independence.
Chapter I. The reasons of the beginning of armed conflict in Yugoslavia
1.1 Euro destabilization
The main problem which was solved by the USA, beginning aggression against Yugoslavia, I was in the sphere of global finance and I consisted in destabilization of euro and an exception of possibility of its transformation into World War II reserve currency. Introduction of euro threatened with sharp reduction of world requirement for dollars at the expense of such main mechanisms, as:
change of structure of gold and foreign exchange reserves in favor of euro, planned in many countries of the world, including China;
Reduction of dollar reserves of the countries of the Eurozone;
Transfer to euro part of internal calculations of the countries of the Eurozone traditionally carried out in dollars
in the long term - transfer to cash euros part of cash dollar savings and current assets around the world Mass inflow of dollars to economy of the USA would lead in this case to its irreversible destabilization and degradation
Here pertinently to remember the categorical cases of some kind of blackmail which have been carried out in due time Chirac and Khrushchev, threatening to return the USA cash dollars in exchange for gold.
Analyzing influence of introduction of euro on a financial system of the USA in августе1998 years, domestic economic experts indicated the vital need for the USA of implementation of destabilization of economy of the third countries for increase from their party of demand for dollars and "absorptions" by them being released because of introduction of euro dollar weight. However possibilities of this mechanism initially were limited, and cost for its realization of v excessive. Intellectual and administrative advantage of the USA was shown that their experts and leaders could step over a framework of habitual representations for the solution of this problem.
At the end of 1998 they drew a conclusion that from euro rather destructive and painful war in Europe, being conducted with active participation of the European countries of NATO can provide the guaranteed protection of dollar against the competition only. War against Yugoslavia because of oppressions of Albanians to Kosovo and Hungarians in Vojvodina was recognized as the most effective. Humanitarian intensity and hundreds thousands refugees who were closely adjoining in the homeland to organized crime and a drug mafia, the center of long-term intensity in the center of Europe, considerable destructions and an ecological disaster, - all this reliably destabilized economy of Europe and limited the potential of euro for the next years to the status no more than regional currency.
Short-sightedness of the European countries can be justified - after all if the capitals of the USA act on the global financial markets, the continental capitals are closer to real sector and don't come off it absolutely, as their American partners. Therefore they really could not see consequences of the Yugoslavian war for euro, - but thus they counted on realization with its help of the specific.
The most evident manifestation of limitation of continental consciousness is the amazing level of carelessness shown at introduction of euro. So, domestic experts didn't manage to find direct signs of carrying out not that complex quantitative, but even the simple qualitative analysis of consequences of introduction of euro for the countries of the Eurozone and their external relations. Strictly speaking, emergence of a global financial contradiction of the Eurozone with the USA as a result of euro introduction, probably, in general seriously wasn't analyzed by the Eurozone countries. 
1.2 Updating of the USA economy at the expense of currency expenses
War in Yugoslavia allowed the USA to update economy and to lift its level concerning the countries of Europe at the expense of huge increase in the currency expenses spent for war. If to track courses of Eurocurrencies throughout winter, spring and summer of 1999, it is easy to notice a tendency to their falling.
I. e. if the European currencies are devaluated concerning US dollar, the European goods exported to America, become cheaper. The economy of the USA already received a gain more than 6%, and European remained at the same level. So Europe has nothing to sell, but there are a lot of things that it is possible to buy from the USA, and every day the goods imported from States become more expensive.
In other words, if on January 1, 1999 you bought 1 kg of gold approximately for 10141.00 USD, having sold it now, you will be able to gain only 9351.00 USD. Where the difference in 790.00 USD got to? 
1.3 Investments into the destroyed economy
The developed countries of Europe and the USA need object of large-scale and effective investment. This requirement amplifies, on the one hand, expansion of investment resources after reduction of internal bank reserves of the Eurozone, caused by transition to euro, and with another - reduction of the sphere of potential investment after destabilization of developing countries.
In these conditions realization new "the plan of Marshall" - large-scale investments in destroyed (that is ideally prepared for modernization) economy at complete political control and fabulous low cost of the qualified labor, is for the developed countries of Europe and the USA exclusively favorable prospect. And to realize the plan of Marshall in any country, it needs to be prepared as appropriate for it, and the mechanism of such preparation half a century was created by the USA - carpet bombings of Germany and Japan back. On this blazed way which has proved the historical expediency, modern Europe also moved - and voices about need new "the plan of Marshall" for post-war Yugoslavia already sound.
It is essentially important for understanding of modern policy of the USA nuance - for them the relations not alliance, but the global competition are primary. According to the provision of a super state they are inclined to consider the alliance relations mainly as the tool allowing them randomly and with impunity to infringe upon interests of the younger partners, ensuring, thus, unconditional advantage over them in the international competition. The infringement if it is carried out in the course of achievement of "the general tasks" is especially effective.
So, in the Yugoslavian conflict, the USA, continuously increasing blows, passed from destruction of easily restored information infrastructure to elimination much more capital-intensive transport, and then and even more expensive of power and municipal infrastructures that rejects Yugoslavia in a cave century and significantly reduces its post-war investment appeal, undermining thereby essential interests of the European part of aggressors.
Only costs of restoration of the Yugoslavian infrastructure at least by 10 times will exceed expenses of the USA on Kosovo war. Today the damage of Yugoslavia is estimated at 126 billion dollars. 
The most striking example of similar activity, along with purposeful decrease in post-war investment appeal of Yugoslavia, it is necessary to recognize hacker war of the USA against the largest European banks, launched under the pretext of destruction of accounts of Milosevic. It is same (and so effective) the act of the international competition which is carried out by discredit of the European banks, daring to compete with American, as well as large-scale campaign for disclosure of secret of deposits of the Swiss banks (undermined ideas of their reliability by means of perfectly moral search of deposits of victims of Nazism). Not to mention campaign for charge of Japanese financiers in communications with a mafia (upon completion of scandal accused financiers were employed in the American banks - competitors of those banks in whom they worked). [3: 26]
1.4 Updating of arms
Having begun war against Belgrade and having involved in it the allies on NATO, the Pentagon achieved performance of several passing, but the important purposes from a row military-economic and technical:
Disposal of outdated ammunition
The Pentagon provided compensation of the spent ammunition and opened to many contractors the additional "valve" prolonging their deliveries to the Ministry of Defense of the USA.
Military operations against Yugoslavia served as further development of the tendency which foundation was laid during war in a zone of the Persian Gulf when strengths of allies for the first time showed efficiency of systems of arms of high precision. Such systems reduce probability of inadvertent damage and a risk level to which crews of planes are exposed. According to Paul Nesbit, the expert in the field of war industry, operations on the Balkans can cause changes in tactics of future operations in respect of strengthening of a role of high-precision systems. 
By Raytheon company estimates, the cost of new contracts on completion of the ammunition spent on the Balkans will make about 1 billion dale. The company expects to receive 420 million dales only on re-equipment and modernization of Tomahawk cruise missiles earlier made by it which will go for completion of the stocks spent in Yugoslavia. On rockets, in particular, receivers of the satellite navigation system "Navistar" will be installed.
"Raytheon" also secured the order for expansion of production of the false targets towed by plane distracting on fire of systems of air defense. The cost of the contract makes 6, 5 million dales.
The number of other systems of the exact targeting which was actively applied in Yugoslavia includes the special modified set of the equipment turning uncontrollable air bombs into the exact weapon. The cost of one such set makes 18 thousand dale. [3: 28]
Test of new types of weapon
New system of counteraction of air defense for the V-2 bomber
On the American strategic B-1B bombers participating in raids of NATO aircraft to Yugoslavia, the technical solutions allowing them to evade from the Yugoslavian anti-aircraft weapons are for the first time applied. According to informed specialized Aviation Week and Space Technology, novelties were developed quickly taking into account military information about technical parameters of systems of air defense of Yugoslavia and established on bombers.
Creation of advanced methods of the electronic counteraction considering concrete features of the Yugoslavian equipment was conducted by exclusively high rates on the basis of the U. S. Air Force the Eglin/staff of Florida / the special group of experts. Representatives of the Air Force and also such company's manufacturers of military equipment were its part, as "AIL Systems", "Reytion" and "Boeing". [3: 34]
Development, test and introduction of the new software intended for the B-1B bombers, took less than 100 hours. It was established on five B-1B which were based on air base the Ellsworth/the State of South Dakota/, from where them threw to Great Britain on base in Herford with whom they make raids to Yugoslavia.
According to the magazine, in usual conditions completion of such software and all subsequent operations take some months. In parallel with development of programs, modification of a database about Yugoslavian air defenses considering the last data of investigation, it was instructed crews of B-1B and test of novelties.
kosovo yugoslavia armed conflict
Chapter II. Features NATO war against Yugoslavia
2.1 Diplomatic features. Technology of the ultimatum
One of the reasons why NATO began bombardments of Yugoslavia - refusal to sign the Agreement in Rambouillet. According to representatives of NATO, bombardment will proceed until the Agreement won't be signed. Need to note that we deal with very strange diplomacy: whether it is possible to consider as diplomatic methods of threat, what if one of the parties won't sign the Agreement, it will raze to the ground? Whether it is similar to a situation when to you suggest signing the contract, holding the charged gun at your temple? Legally such documents are considered as the absolutely invalid. But the main thing, for the general public very hardly noticeably there passed actually the text of this agreement. Excerpts from it, quoted mass media, don't reflect neither all aspects, nor the real purpose of this document. Some points of the Agreement, are given below.
"1. "NATO" designates the Organization of the North Atlantic contract (NATO), the organizations subordinated to it, its military headquarters, any headed elements or the divisions supporting NATO if they work for execution of conditions of this Agreement, irrespective of, whether they belong to the country entering NATO, whether there are they under team of NATO or under NATO control".
I. e., anyone can be called as "NATO", even those countries which aren't included into this organization. For example, Albania, Bosnian Muslims or Croats.
"3. The parties recognize need of acceleration of procedures of arrival and departure of employees and employees of NATO. Such employees will be exempted from requirements of presentation of the passport and receipt of a visa, and also from any registration which is required for foreigners".
I. e. to the country absolutely uncontrolled entrance of any persons under NATO cover is possible.
"4.military personnel of NATO in normal circumstances will wear a military uniform; also the staff of NATO can have the weapon and carry it with themselves if they obtain on it the order of the administration".
"5. NATO will be allowed to place a flag of NATO or national flags of all national elements entering it and divisions on any military uniform of NATO, on vehicles, in rooms or the fenced space". "NATO" and its employees (employees) are absolutely free from any form of prosecution for any their acts.
"6. (a) NATO will receive legal immunity from any prosecution: civil, administrative or criminal.
(b) The employees of NATO in any circumstances and will be exempted at any time from jurisdiction of the parties signing these agreements concerning any civil, administrative, criminal or disciplinary violations which they can make, being in FRY".
"8. Staff (employees) of NATO together with the vehicles, vessels, avianforces and the equipment receives free and nothing the limited right to pass and take place in any places of FRY, including in its air space and territorial waters. This right includes, but isn't limited to the rights: to break camp, to maneuver, take place on apartments and to use any districts and territories which are required for support, preparation or activity".
"9. NATO will be exempted from payments, taxes and other collecting, and also from checks and customs inspections, including from providing ordinary customs declarations and consignment notes. This right extends on employees (employees), vehicles, vessels, avianmeans, the equipment, supplies, provisions and spare parts during their entrance/departure (import/export), and also transit drive/transportation on FRY territory if it is connected with performed Operation".
I. e. full economic absence of control.
"15. The parties recognize that use of channels of communications is necessary for carrying out Operation. NATO will be allowed to use own internal post service. The parties by the first simple inquiry are obliged to provide to NATO any telecommunication services, including broadcasting services which are necessary for carrying out Operation and this need are defined by NATO. It includes the right absolutely free of charge to use any means and services which are required for providing unlimited opportunities of communication and the right to use for this purpose all electromagnetic range".
I. e. absolute monopoly in mass media and communication
"16. The parties gratuitously provide to NATO any state or public places or services which NATO for preparation and carrying out Operation" will demand.
"All citizens of Yugoslavia (for example, fighters from "Liberation army of Kosovo") who will be employed by NATO, are released from observance of the labor legislation, they are released from any form of prosecution for the acts made by them, they are exempted from a military appeal, and received by them from NATO earnings are exempted from taxes.
"20. NATO has the right to engage employees from among locals. The locals employed by NATO, will be: a) are exempted from legal prosecution concerning the words said or written by them, and also concerning any actions which they will undertake as obliges; b) will be exempted from the civil duties and/or from obligatory military service; c) will be subject only to the conditions of the working contracts offered by it NATO; d) will be exempted from taxes on a salary and on other payments received by them from NATO". 
It is necessary to add still that under the terms of the Agreement foreign occupational forces get the right "to make such amendments to infrastructures" Yugoslavia what they will consider necessary, and is explained that under infrastructures mean including roads, bridges, the railroads, waterways, messages, etc. It is clear that the term "make amendments" can include, for example, destruction, overlapping, control, etc.
It is obvious what voluntary to agree on these conditions meant to agree on occupation of the country by the foreign state or group of the states.
It is also necessary to mean that some of the states entering into NATO are historical opponents of Serbia. For example, Germany within the last century occupied Serbia twice, and Turkey historically throughout many centuries was her main enemy and the oppressor. There is a possibility of use of NATO of Croats and the Bosnian Muslims who were already arranging genocide of the orthodox Serbian people in this century.
Why Serbians had to sign such agreement and why many colonial authorities, having very long lists of human rights violations (we will remember continuous slaughter which Turkey carries out against the Kurdish population), now united under the flag of NATO, have the right to attack the independent state which itself anybody didn't attack? It is important also that the Agreement speaks about conditions which Serbia is forced to accept, obligatory to application in all territory of FRY, and not just in Kosovo. Whether somebody can present any independent state which accepts similar conditions? For example, whether it is possible to imagine Israel which agrees to provide to tens of thousands of armed foreign armies in full military uniforms, under national flags unlimited access on all the territory (including to governmental buildings and military bases), control over the air space and radio waves, opportunity to maneuver and break camp where they want, and the right to occupy any building or the room which they will wish. Would allow the USA or any other country of NATO to apply such conditions at home? 
From everything given the simple conclusion above follows - the USA didn't want that Milosevic signed this Agreement. The weighty occasion was necessary to them to justify the aggression against the non aggressive state before the world community and to begin active operations which actually and were their ultimate goal.
The USA, judging by Iraq and now across Kosovo, took advantage of very perspective way of justified invasion into any unsuccessful country - technology of the ultimatum which can't be accepted.
War of the USA and NATO against Yugoslavia revealed basic change of the concept "aggressions". Wide use of information technologies provides stage-by-stage, "creeping" retraction of the victim of aggression in the war, imperceptible even for the victim. Thus the moment of the beginning of aggression is indistinct and is difficult definable that qualitatively softens reaction to aggression of world public opinion and does it if not completely accepted, then not irritating. 
It found the reflection in military doctrines of the countries aggressors, including in the military doctrine of the USA considering how it was shown above, providing "information domination" as the first stage of actually military operations, as the prolog forming with them indissoluble unity. Now the USA actively imposes the military doctrine to partners in NATO. [6: 221]
2.2 Political features
The main official goal of NATO aggression against Yugoslavia was protection of the Albanian population of Kosovo against oppressions of Serbians and prevention of "humanitarian accident" which allegedly could result from these oppressions. Falsity of such motivation as a whole is already clear even to the public of the NATO countries; however it is useful to emphasize the most important points once again:
Oppressions from Serbians were provoked by NATO countries, first of all the USA which consistently warmed up activity of ordinary separatist movement of Kosovar Albanians.
Much more serious oppressions against ethnic or religious minorities of the countries carried out and carry out many countries of the world, including members of NATO - Great Britain (Ulster) and Turkey applying (as well as Saddam Hussein's mode) against Kurds even the chemical weapon. In the territory of the former Yugoslavia much crueler, than to Kosovo, methods applied, for example, the authorities of Croatia. However discontent of the USA (not to mention aggression) was caused only by Serbians.
NATO aggression not that didn't prevent, and, on the contrary, in itself became main, if not the only reason of humanitarian accident in Kosovo. In any degree without justifying practice of ethnic cleanings, it should be noted that heads of the USA are better than others had to understand inevitability of ethnic cleanings concerning the people who have been officially called aggressors the reason of attack.
The USA was the first country which has applied this technique. After attack of Japan to Perl Harbor all Japanese living in the USA, regardless of nationality were thrown into concentration camps where were until the end of war.
The fact of really large-scale ethnic cleanings in Kosovo raises doubts. Messages on them are based in words the Kosovars connected by breeding solidarity, dependent on NATO and intimidated by narcoterrorists from supported NATO of groups. The facts speak about other: 120 thousand Kosovar Albanians ran on the territory of Yugoslavia! Their bigger quantity ran only to Albania. It is impossible that victims of ethnic cleanings ran to the executioners. Therefore, people ran not from cleanings, and from NATO bombardments which intensity was the greatest in Kosovo. Thus, on the Balkans criminal aggression untied by the USA and NATO is the main reason of humanitarian accident, and humanitarian accident was one of the purposes of aggressors (differently intensity of bombings of peace objects wouldn't be maximum in the "saved" Kosovo, and NATO officials wouldn't interfere with Albanians to come back to the villages). The probable explanation of the last consists in marginalization of Kosovar Albanians as people which will provide fast inflow of tens of thousands in normal conditions of peace people in the militant groups, called partially to replace NATO armies in overland invasion, especially in the most dangerous operations, and thus qualitatively to lower level of their losses.
Thus, the proclaimed purposes of aggression had no relation to reality. The provisions given above convincingly prove that aggressors are indifferent to character of the Yugoslavian authorities and use references to their actions only for a justification of own actions and masking of own interests. 
2.3 Conclusions for the conflict reasons
From all above it is visible that attack to Yugoslavia became possible because it corresponded to essential interests not only the USA, but also the European member countries of NATO. Therefore it isn't necessary to hope that some disagreements observed in NATO, will develop into split without the considerable losses connected with overland invasion - each participant of aggression how he tried "to save a face" hints about the "special position", successfully pursues own interest.
Thus the last, in full accordance with the concept of "indirect action", has no relation to officially declared reasons of aggression. The main problem of practical implementation of this concept consists that on reaching the purpose there is no seen reason to stop carried-out action and it is necessary to continue.
So in Yugoslavia: the objectives of war are achieved, it lost meaning for the USA and NATO, but it is impossible to finish it.
1. Article materials - Evgeny KOZHOKIN LB searches of new philosophy of safety.
2. Bob Djurdjevic TRUTH IN MEDIA Phoenix, Arizona
3. Boris Kagarlitsky - the research associate of Institute of comparative political science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. www.intellectualcapital.ru
4. Environmental News Service, USA, on April 7 - http://ens-newswire.com/
5. Environmental News Service, USA, on April 10 - http://ens-newswire.com/
6. International Action Center Radioactive weapons used by U. S. / NATO in Kosovo http://www.iacenter.org
7. Kosovo Bulletin Board Posting, Posting 9642 of 9650
8. Letter of professors of biology of Janet Eaton (Canada) and Glad Lasevich (Serbia)
9. Mikhail Delyagin NATO: Lesson of the international terror for Russia. Open part of the analytical report
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