Netlinguistics

Concept of Contractions: acronyms, initialisms. Internet Slang. Sociolinguistics, its role in contractions. Lexicology - a Branch of Linguistics. Comparison. Contraction Methods. Formal Writing Rules. Formal or Informal Writing. Concept of Netlinguistics.

01.02.2016

Introduction

We use Internet every day and in order to make our communication quicker and funnier we started to use some ways of changing the words.

Regarding the fact that time is money and we try our best to save it we use such word combinations as C U @ 5 which means See you at five; C U l8er- see you later, 10q- as Thank you; W8- wait; etc. Besides the contractions we frequently meet abbreviations like- BTW- By the way, JFTR- just for the record; FAQ- frequently asked questions, etc.

When we put air into a balloon, it expands. When we let the air out, it contracts. Let's picture this analogy when we think about what a contraction is in English, mainly in Internet.

The aim of the course paper was to show the methods of word contractions, their types; their role in Internet communication between students and what influence they cause on their Formal writing.

We used examples from different sources and made statistics of most frequently used contractions and abbreviation in English which students use while communicating.

The course paper consists of three chapters. First one is about theoretical background of contractions, their methods and appearance. The second chapter deals with comparison between Internet and Formal writing. The third chapter concerns the practical part with most frequent examples used by Internet users, mainly students.

The authors used in this paper are chiefly English linguists, they are Crystal, Greiffenstern, Baron, Antrushina, Arnold, Ulman and others. Their approach helped us investigate the peculiarities while understanding and translating acronyms, contractions, leet words, etc.

As a result of practical research we investigated 120 examples of contractions, we processed them according to linguistic analysis and emphasized structural types (lexicology) ways of contraction, grammar, sequence of tenses/ neglecting of tenses, punctuation and pragmatics.

We also applied sociolinguistic method which helps see the difference between initial word form and its contraction in Internet in comparison with a formal way of writing.

In my opinion the actuality and importance of this research is not only going into depths of the topic, understanding of new sciences like Netspeak or Netlinguistics, but also a fruitful time spent with withdrawing of necessary examples which can help this changeable Internet world.

Chapter I. Theoretical Background

1. Contractions

A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters (actually, sounds). In traditional grammar, contraction can denote the formation of a new word from one word or a group of words, for example, by elision. This often occurs in rendering a common sequence of words or, as in French, in maintaining a flowing sound.

In linguistic analysis, contractions should not be confused with abbreviations nor acronyms (including initialisms), with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all three are connoted by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. Contraction is also distinguished from clipping, where beginnings and endings are omitted.

Contractions are frequently used in Internet and are included in a bigger lexical group as Slang.

Besides the given way of contraction there are other ways of changing words, such as blends, initials, cuttings, etc. [3]

An acronym is an abbreviation formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word. Usually these components are individual letters (as in NATO or laser) or parts of words or names (as in Benelux).

There are broad currents of consensus but no universal standardization of various names for such abbreviations and of their orthographic styling. In English and most other languages, such abbreviations historically had limited use, but they became much more common in the 20th century. Acronyms are a type of word formation process, and they are viewed as a subtype of blending. [3]

An initialism is a word made from the first letters of each word in a phrase. Unlike acronyms, initialisms cannot be spoken as words: they are spoken letter by letter. Examples of initialisms are:

DVD - Digital Versatile Disc

BRB - Be Right Back

NMHU - Not Much Here, You?

GTG/G2G - Got To Go

Leet (sometimes written as "1337" or "l33t"), also known as eleet or leetspeak, is another alphabet for the English language that is used mostly on the internet. It uses various combinations of ASCII characters to replace Latinate letters. For example, leet spellings of the word leet include 1337 and l33t; eleet may be spelled 31337or 3l33t. It is used a lot on the internet in forums, chat rooms and online games. [3]

2. Internet slang (Internet shorthand, Cyber-slang, netspeak, or chatspeak)

Refers to a variety of slang languages used by different people on the Internet. It is difficult to provide a standardized definition of Internet slang due to the constant changes made to its nature. However, it can be understood to be a type of slang that Internet users have popularized, and in many cases, have coined. Such terms often originate with the purpose of saving keystrokes or to compensate for small character limits.

Many people use the same abbreviations in texting and instant messaging, and social networking websites. Acronyms, keyboard symbols and abbreviations are common types of Internet slang. New dialects of slang, such as leet (Leet (or "1337"), also known as eleet or leetspeak, is an alternative alphabet for the English language that is used primarily on theInternet. It uses various combinations of ASCII characters to replace Latinate letters. For example, leet spellings of the word leet include1337 and l33t; eleet may be spelled 31337 or 3l33t.) or Lolspeak, develop as ingroup internet memes rather than time savers.

With the growing popularity of the Internet over the years, Area Forecast Discussions (AFD), written by forecasters in the National Weather Service, are accessible to a much larger number of people than in years past, when the discussion was essentially an internal coordination device. It is because the AFD has become such a public product that forecasters have been discouraged from using abbreviations and contractions whenever possible. Nevertheless, certain common contractions are still used. These contractions frequently refer to meteorological parameters unfamiliar to the general public. If you are a reader of our AFDs, you may be interested in making some sense out of the alphabet soup.

Here are some of these contractions used in slang:

internet slang linguistics lexicology

C - see - they IDK - I don't know n - and r - are 1t - want [3]

3. Sociolinguistics. Its role in contractions

Sociolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society. Sociolinguistics is the study of how language serves and is shaped by the social nature of human beings. In its broadest conception, sociolinguistics analyzes the many and diverse ways in which language and society entwine. This vast field of inquiry requires and combines insights from a number of disciplines, including linguistics, sociology, psychology and anthropology.

Sociolinguistics examines the interplay of language and society, with language as the starting point. Variation is the key concept, applied to language itself and to its use. The basic premise of sociolinguistics is that language is variable and changing. As a result, language is not homogeneous -- not for the individual user and not within or among groups of speakers who use the same language.

What we may call `the sociolinguistic method' is neither new to sociolinguistics, nor universally adhered to by sociolinguists, nor-strictly speaking-a method. It is basically a working hypothesis with a distinctive (within linguistics) methodological and conceptual apparatus, built up over the last ten to fifteen years in response to the particular needs of research guided by this hypothesis. The essential point is that the primary data for the study of linguistic structure, function, and change is the spoken language, more specifically spontaneous unreflecting speech in its natural context.

If we apply the sociolinguistic method to ordinary word combinations we use every day- we could explain their change, contraction and the reason of above mentioned. B4 - before ;FYI - for your information ; IDK - I don't know All these contractions/ abbreviations have several reasons- society (students mainly) choose brevity, fun, assonance and associative thinking that leads to language contraction, word cutting, word formation not only by letters, but with numbers as well:

L8er - later; gr8 - great; 2 - too, to; 4 - four; b4 - before

4. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics. Its interrelations with other sciences

Lexicology (from Gr lexis word and logos learning) is a part of linguistics dealing with the vocabulary of a language and the properties of words as the main units of the language. It also studies all kinds of semantic grouping and semantic relations: synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, semantic fields, etc. In this connection, the term vocabulary is used to denote a system formed by the sum total of all the words and word equivalents that the language possesses. The term word denotes the basic unit of a given language resulting from the association of a particular meaning with a particular group of sounds capable of a particular grammatical employment. A word therefore is at the same time a semantic, grammatical and phonological unit. So, the subject-matter of lexicology is the word, its morphemic structure, history and meaning.

There are several branches of lexicology. The general study of words and vocabulary, irrespective of the specific features of any particular language, is known as general lexicology. Linguistic phenomena and properties common to all languages are referred to as language universals. Special lexicology focuses on the description of the peculiarities in the vocabulary of a given language. A branch of study called contrastive lexicology provides a theoretical foundation on which the vocabularies of different languages can be compared and described, the correlation between the vocabularies of two or more languages being the scientific priority. Vocabulary studies include such aspects of research as etymology, semasiology and onomasiology.

The evolution of a vocabulary forms the object of historical lexicology or etymology (from Gr. etymon true, real), discussing the origin of various words, their change and development, examining the linguistic and extra-linguistic forces that modify their structure, meaning and usage. Semasiology (from Gr. semasia signification) is a branch of linguistics whose subject-matter is the study of word meaning and the classification of changes in the signification of words or forms, viewed as normal and vital factors of any linguistic development. It is the most relevant to polysemy and homonymy. Onomasiology is the study of the principles and regularities of the signification of things / notions by lexical and lexico-phraseological means of a given language. It has its special value in studying dialects, bearing an obvious relevance to synonymity. Descriptive lexicology deals with the vocabulary of a language at a given stage of its evolution. It studies the functions of words and their specific structure as a characteristic inherent in the system.

In the English language the above science is oriented towards the English word and its morphological and semantic structures, researching the interdependence between these two aspects. These structures are identified and distinguished by contrasting the nature and arrangement of their elements. Within the framework of lexicology, both synchronic (Gr syn together, with and chronos time) and diachronic or historical (Gr dia through) approaches to the language suggested by the Swiss philologist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) are effectively realized. Language is the reality of thought, and thought develops together with the development of a society, thus the language and its vocabulary should be studied in the light of social history. Every new phenomenon in a human society in general, which is of any importance for communication, finds a reflection in the corresponding vocabulary. A word is considered to be a generalized reflection of reality; therefore, it is impossible to understand its development if one is ignorant of the changes in socio-political or everyday life, manners and culture, science of a linguoculture it serves to reflect. These extra-linguistic forces influencing the evolution of words are taken into the priority consideration in modern lexicology. With regard to special lexicology the synchronic approach is concerned with the vocabulary of a language as it exists at a certain time (e.g., a course in Modern English Lexicology). The diachronic approach in terms of special lexicology deals with the changes and the development of the vocabulary in the course of time. It is special historical lexicology that deals with the evolution of vocabulary units as time goes by. The two approaches should not be contrasted, as they are interdependent since every linguistic structure and system actually exists in a state of constant development so that the synchronic state of a language system is a result of a long process of linguistic evolution. As every word is a unity of semantic, phonetic and grammatical elements, the word is studied not only in lexicology, but in other branches of linguistics, too, lexicology being closely connected with general linguistics, the history of the language, phonetics, stylistics, and grammar. According to S. Ullmann, lexicology forms next to phonology, the second basic division of linguistic science (the third is syntax). Consequently, the interaction between vocabulary and grammar is evident in morphology and syntax. Grammar reflects the specific lexical meaning and the capacity of words to be combined in human actual speech. The lexical meaning of the word, in its turn, is frequently signaled by the grammatical context in which it occurs. Thus, morphological indicators help to differentiate the variant meanings of the word (e.g., plural forms that serve to create special lexical meaning: colors, customs, etc.; two kinds of pluralization: brother > brethren - brothers; cloth > cloths - clothes). There are numerous instances when the syntactic position of the word changes both its function and lexical meaning (e.g., an adjective and a noun element of the same group can change places: library school - school library). The interrelation between lexicology and phonetics becomes obvious if we think of the fact that the word as the basis unit in lexicological study cannot exist without its sound form, which is the object of study in phonology. Words consist of phonemes that are devoid of meaning of their own, but forming morphemes they serve to distinguish between meanings. The meaning of the word is determined by several phonological features: a) qualitative and quantitative character of phonemes (e.g. dog-dock, pot-port); b) fixed sequence of phonemes (e.g. pot-top, nest-sent-tens); 3) the position of stress (e.g. insult (verb) and insult (noun)). Summarizing, lexicology is the branch of linguistics concerned with the study of words as individual items and dealing with both formal and semantic aspects of words; and although it is concerned predominantly with an in-depth description of lexemes, it gives a close attention to a vocabulary in its totality, the social communicative essence of a language as a synergetic system being a study focus. [E]

Chapter II Comparison. Contraction Methods. Formal Writing Rules.

1. Formal Writing Guidelines

Since Formal writing requires strict rules, their stability would seem steady and correct in comparison with Internet contractions even when they are not necessary.

1. It is not allowed to use contractions in formal writing.

a. Can't = cannot - c. It's = it is

b. Won't = will not - d. Shouldn't = should not

2.It is not allowed to begin sentences with because, it, and, but, so, or a vague pronoun. In other words, do not start sentences with vague pronouns or conjunctions. Essentially, poorly written, weak, and ineffective sentences begin with: it, and, but, this, or so. One should be specific and avoid ambiguity.

3.It is not allowed to use first or second person. I, me, we, us, our, etc. should be removed from formal writing. ONE USE OF YOU EQUALS THE GRADE DROPPING TO A FIFTY-NINE (AN AUTOMATIC F) on major papers. Other deductions will be subtracted from that number. Formal papers must stand on the evidence and the effectiveness of the writer's argument. The writer cannot assume the reader will agree with his or her ideas about the subject.

4. It is not allowed to write like this is an e-mail or a text message. Any written assignment for this course is FORMAL WRITING. Slang, symbols, and abbreviations are not tolerated. Particularly offensive items include the ampersand (&) instead of and, w/ for with, w/out for without, b/c for because, and lol for laugh out loud.

5.It is not allowed to write fragments (incomplete thoughts). Complete sentences have a subject, a verb, and express a complete thought. It is not allowed to write run-on sentences (fused sentences, comma splices, etc.).

6.One should watch out for homonyms and a lot. Lots of people are still having issues with there (a place or a demonstrative pronoun denoting where something is located) and their (people possessing something), as well as, to (going to the store) and too (also). Spell check is useless when it comes to homonyms. The computer only looks for words. It does not have a brain to figure out what you are trying to say. Remember a lot is two words, not one. [5]

The importance of writing in academic/ formal way.

There's no great mystique about an "academic writing style". The most important thing is to keep your writing clear and concise and make sure that you get your ideas over in a comprehensible form. It's clear expression of these ideas that will impress your tutor, not a string of long, inappropriate words found in your dictionary. A wide range of vocabulary is of course important, but you must use the right word, and shorter ones are often better than longer ones.

The most important thing to remember is generally to try to avoid everyday, informal language, especially colloquial expressions and slang. Also, spoken language is naturally full of hesitations, repetitions, grammatical errors and unfinished ideas. In your writing, however, structure is much more important: sentences should be complete and ideas arranged into paragraphs or sections, and you should aim for perfection in your grammar and spelling.

However, especially if English is not your first language, don't become too obsessed with this, to the point perhaps of copying word for word from your sources. What's important is that you clearly show your understanding of the subject and your ability to manipulate information to answer a specific question or complete a specific task, and as long as any grammar errors you make don't impede this, then it shouldn't be a problem. [14]

2. Formal or Informal

Just as there is formal and informal dress, so there is formal and informal speech. One is not supposed to turn up at a ministerial reception or at a scientific symposium wearing a pair of brightly coloured pyjamas. (Jeans are scarcely suitable for such occasions either, though this may be a matter of opinion.) Consequently, the social context in which the communication is taking place determines both the mode of dress and the modes of speech. When placed in different situations, people instinctively choose different kinds of words and structures to express their thoughts. The suitability or unsuitability of a word for each particular situation depends on its stylistic characteristics or, in other words, on the functional style it represents.

The term functional style is generally accepted in modern linguistics. Professor I. V. Arnold defines it as "a system of expressive means peculiar to a specific sphere of communication".

By the sphere of communication we mean the circumstances attending the process of speech in each particular case: professional communication, a lecture, an informal talk, a formal letter, an intimate letter, a speech in court, etc.

All these circumstances or situations can be roughly classified into two types: formal (a lecture, a speech in court, an official letter, professional communication) and informal (an informal talk, an intimate letter). And Informal words in their turn have a brunch which is called Internet slang, which also can be divided into several sub branches.

Informal vocabulary is used in one's immediate circle: family, relatives or friends. One uses informal words when at home or when feeling at home, the same happens in Internet: the person not only uses plain common words but also contracts them in a maximum possible way to get it shortened, cut and still expressing the same idea without losing the meaning. [4]

3. Netlinguistics. Informal abbreviations and contractions

Complementary to acronyms of various types as seen above, Internet users resort to a large number of abbreviations, or initialims, which are used for the following combination of purposes:

a)to show that they are expert members in the Internet community,

b)to condense information,

c) to express digital tenor,

d) to add an indication as to the emotional underlying content of a message; that is to say, in some instances these abbreviations are used with a similar communicative purpose to that of emotions.

* BYKTA- But you knew that already

* BYOB-Bring your own bottle

Also, it may be the case that one of these abbreviations may combine both initials and numbers, as in the following examples:

*CUL8R- See you later

*1FTR-One for the road

More examples of Informal Internet abbreviations:

AAMOF- as a matter of fact

AFAIK- as far as I know

BTOBD- Be there or be dead

CFD- Call for discussion

In addition to this complex system of Internet abbreviations, contractions are also a common feature of many digital genres. Most likely they were introduced in interactive and participatory digital genres and the various forms of online communication, such as email system and chats. Nowadays they are found in many other Internet genres, namely websites and computer texts. These contractions represent one of the features through which digital tenor is realised. [H]

Netspeak. Internet. CMC Acronyms.

[I, p21-24 ]English Author Sandra Greiffenstern went into depths of Internet influence and found out what English linguists think about contractions in Internet. English linguis Baron in her latest study about CMC, Always On (2008) she argues that these new forms of language are having profound impacts upon both the linguistic and social dimensions of human interaction. The study contains statements about the influence of CMC regarding the linguistic dimension but they often lack proof. For example, Baron simply states that the influence of CMC on language use is small:

We also tend to blow out of proportion the scope of IM texting language an issue. In reality, there are relatively few linguistic novelties specific to electronically-mediated language that seem to have staying power. Abbreviation in texting? Sure. A handful of new acronyms (such as LOL or CU)? Indeed. Hundreds more available? Yes, though they are unintelligible to the vast majority of even young Internet users. The idea that everyone under the age of twentyfive knows an entire new language is simply poppycock.

Baron points out that people who worry about language deterioration due to CMC are not so much concerned about the use of acronyms or other features of CMC but rather about something more general: Underlying the contemporary hand-writing is actually a deeper concern: that Internet language is corrupting the way we craft traditional writing or even speak face-to-face. Here again, she implies the emergence of a Whatever culture and changing attitudes towards language use. Her latest study shows that Baron sees more influence of CMC on the social dimension of communication that the linguistic dimension. In Always On, tshe clearly positions herself in the discussion about the influence of CMC on language by pointing out that CMC only causes minor linguistic changes.

David Crystal is another linguis who started looking into the phenomenon computer-mediated communication rather early but this emphasis is on other aspects. He describes CMC as something completely new that cannot be described in relation with written and spoken language. In his book Language and Internet he coins the term Netspeak, probably to underline his assumption that he is dealing with something new and different. For him, the term Netspeak is an alternative to `Netlish', `Weblish', `Internet language', `cyberspeak', `computer-mediated communication' and many other cumbersome locutions.

He not only presents any analyses the new features found in Netspeak but also gives some examples of its influence on the English language in other spheres of language use. Crystal points out that acronyms like LOL `laughing out loud' which is used in chatrooms are now found in other situations, too. He thinks that it is possible to begin making some observations about the kind of language which seems to be typical of the Internet domain as a whole" (Crystal, 2001a: 81). He believes that there is a new kind of English emerging.

When considering other studies he criticises the "tendency to highlight the informal features of messages - such as the use of contractions, loose sentence construction, subject ellipsis (Will let you know), colloquial abbreviations (bye,cos, &, slow, s/thing) and 'cool' acronyms (LOL, CU)" which "are plainly not indicative of the variety as a whole, as many messages do not use them". As an example of other features of Netspcak he mentions the "question/answer basis of many exchanges", He believes that an analysis of sentence types in exchanges on the Internet would reveal a greater intensity of questioning than in traditional letters or conversations. Moreover, he states that rhetorical questions are more often used in emails than in other varieties of written English

Crystal also predicts that the increasing use of computers and the Internet thus Netspeak will influence our communication in general because the Internet not only has technological but also social aspects: Language being such a sensitive index of social change, it would be surprising indeed is such a radically innovative phenomenon did not have a corresponding impact on the way we communicate. And so it can be argued. Language is at the heart of Internet, for Net activity is interactivity. In his study he shows a range of intriguingly new and still evolving linguistic varieties, characterized by sets of specific adaptations, in graphology, grammar, semantics, and discourse, to the properties of the technology and the needs of the user.

Crystal calls Netspeak a development of millennial significance and concludes As a new linguistic medium, Netspeak will doubtless grow in its sociolinguistic and stylistic complexity to be comparable to that already known in traditional speech and writing. He calls the Internet a constant generator of new terminology [I,27] that is why the list of contractions, acronyms and shortenings together with new types of word transformation will continue their path of development. [C]

Chapter III. Practical approach

1. The examples of Internet Contractions and their explanations

Chat acronyms:

1

TTY

Talk To You.

/

2

NM

Never Mind.

3

JOOC

Just Out of Curiosity.

4

BRB

Be Right Back.

5

BTW

By The Way

6

BFF

Best Friends Forever.

7

DBEYR

Don't Believe Everything You Read.

, .

8

IDK

I don't know

9

ILY

I Love You.

.

10

IMHO

In My Humble Opinion.

.

11

IRL

In Real Life.

12

ISO

In Search Of.

13

J/K

Just Kidding.

14

LOL

Laughing Out Loud.

.

15

OMG

Oh My God.

, .

16

OT

Off Topic.

.

17

POV

Point Of View.

.

18

RBTL

Read Between The Lines.

.

19

TMI

Too Much Information.

.

20

TTYL

Talk To You Later.

.

21

TYVM

Thank You Very Much.

.

22

WYWH

Wish You Were Here.

, () .

23

ROFL

fall on floor laughing

24

BRB

be right back.

25

FYI

for your information

26

IDK

I don't know

27

IMO

in my opinion.

-

28

TBH

to be honest,

29

BBS

be back soon

30

ILYSM

I love you so much

.

31

POS

parent over shoulder

32

CTN

can't talk now

33

ATM

at the moment

34

OMG

oh my God

, !

35

NM

not much/ never mind

/

36

NW

no worries

37

ASA

as soon as

38

ADAD

Another Day Another Dollar

- .

39

CMIIW

Correct me if I'm wrong.

,

40

DND

Do not disturb

/

41

DW

Don't worry

42

GMTA

Great minds think alike.

43

OIC

Oh, I see.

44

CFD

Call for discussion

,

45

BYKTA

But you knew that already.

.

46

BTOBD

Be there or be dead.

.

47

OS

Operating system.

Web Acronyms:

448

Interpol

International Criminal Police Organization.

, -

449

Nabisco

National Biscuit Company. -

-

Initialisms:

550

BBC

British Broadcasting Corporation

551

FAQ

frequently asked question.

.

552

JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group

553

PIN

personal identification number

-

554

ATM

machine-automated teller machine

Leet words:

555

1337

elite

556

5p34k

speak

557

haxor or H4x0r

Hacker.

Words with omissions/transformation:

558

CUZ

Because ('cause)

559

OFC

Of course

660

THX/ TX /THKS

Thanks.

661

O RLY

Oh, really?

?

662

PPL

people

663

BK

back

/

664

SKL

school

665

OBV

obviously

666

BCUS

because

667

BF

boyfriend

668

PLZ

please

669

KK

ok

770

YH

yes

771

XOXO

Hugs and Kisses.

, .

772

B-day

Birthday.

773

Innit-

isn't it?

?

774

QT

quite.

/ -

775

Pro

provessional.

776

Vics

victims

777

c'mere

come here.

778

fo'c's'le-

forecastle.

779

'course

of course.

880

g'night

good night.

881

toldja

told you

()

882

wouldnae

would not.

(/a)

883

y'ever

you ever

-

884

blog

web log or an online journal

885

gratz

Congratulations.

.

886

Sth/Smth

something

-

887

Smb

somebody.

-

888

r

are

889

n

and

990

MSG

message

Words with numbers instead of some sounds:

91

H2H

Heart To Heart.

92

2moro

Tomorrow

93

2nite

Tonight.

94

B4N

Bye For Now

, .

95

GR8

Great

.

96

L8R

Later

97

CUL8R

see you later

98

02.

to or too/ for

/

99

B4N

before

100

BL8S

blatantly

101

G2G

got to go

102

B2C

Business to Customer.

.

103

sk8/sk8er

skate/skater

104

M8

Mate

105

NE1

Anyone

-

106

gr8

Great

.

107

1t

want

Contractions often used in gaming:

108

PW

Persistent World.

109

GL

good luck

110

NS

Nice shot

/

Word combinations & their standard form [H]

111

Wanna

Want to

-

112

Gonna

Going to

-

113

Lemme

Let me

114

Dunno

Do not know

Clippings [H]

115

Til

Till

, /

116

Smilin

Smiling

117

Talkin

Talking

Shortenings

118

Bro

Brother

/

119

Lang

Language.

/

120

Fri

Friday

/

121

Feb

February

/

122

Aft

After

2. Shakespear's contractions/omissions

Again, for the sake of his poetry, Shakespeare often left out letters, syllables, and whole words. These omissions really aren't that much different from the way we speak today. We say:

"Been to class yet?" "No. Heard Ulen's givin' a test." "Wha'sup wi'that?"

We leave out words and parts of words to speed up our speech. If we were speaking in complete sentences, we would say:

"Have you been to class yet?" "No, I have not been to class. I heard that Mrs. Ulen is giving a test today." "What is up with that?"

Despite the fact that contractions are not quite understandable by some people, a good beginning of their existence took place even earlier than people think. A few examples of Shakespearean omissions/contractions that follow will show their importance:

'tis ~ it is ope ~ open o'er ~ over gi' ~ give ne'er ~ never

i' ~ in e'er ~ ever oft ~ often a' ~ he e'en ~ even [12]

Certainly Shakespeare used contractions to match the rhyme, however, every invention finds its utilizers.

Conclusion

Internet appeared not so long ago but it already engrained its branches into almost every sphere of human activity and this fact inevitably leads to certain changes.

In his very course paper we aimed to show the varieties of contractions, omissions and other word transformations which appear in the World Web every day.

The actuality of our topic is undeniable because we use cell phones and Internet every day, which means our involvement into Netspeak sphere, as it calls Crystal, English linguist and author of many Internet researches.

The Objective of our course paper was to show the methods of word contractions, their types; their role in Internet communication between students and what influence they cause on their Formal writing, this objective was reached by means of 120 examples taken from Internet, mainly from chats, Internet dictionaries, Slang dictionaries and from own experience.

Complementary to contractions and acronyms of various types as mentioned in the paper, Internet users resort to a large number of abbreviations, or initialims, which are used for the following combination of purposes:

a)to show that they are expert members in the Internet community,

b)to condense information,

c) to express digital tenor,

d) to add an indication as to the emotional underlying content of a message

In comparison with academic or formal writing, Internet way of condensing words sometimes crosses limits and lead to misunderstanding and forgetting the initial forms of the words. Nevertheless this statement can be argued, as Crystal did in his book dedicated to `Netspeak' where he approves the idea that this method develops not only the spelling skills but also helps pay attention to the stem of the word, its structure in order to condense or shorten it.

I myself agree with the importance of this method of communication, because it develops human ability to cipher information, bring it faster through associations and references to some other things.

This course work put me on thinking whether way should I choose while writing something in internet and to pay attention on the influence of the Internet impact phenomena which surely leaves its footmark in the contribution of General linguistics being a part of its sub branch `Netlinguistics'.

Regarding personal experience this topic may concern everyone who uses mobile devices and any other gadgets. Since our century is called century of technology, it goes without saying that Internet is not just included in this algorithm, it most likely occupies the chief part in it and only stimulates it to developing and moving forward.

Appendix 1

Internet contractions statistics:

As Internet is a part of everyday life it is not difficult to emphasize the most frequently repeated contractions that we face every single entrance at any chat between youngsters. (Survey led with 60 interviewed people in Internet.)

LOL -Laughing out loud

PLZ PLS- Please

XOXO -Hugs and Kisses

OMG -Oh My God

RLY- Oh really?

BTW -By The Way

AFK -Away From Keyboard

2nite - Tonight

2 - too, to

4 - for

L8TR - later

THX 10x-Thanks

BFF -Best Friends Forever

IMHO- In my humble / honest opinion

Survey-Statistics

The survey had been led, as a result-participants used contractions 65% of the time they had the option. But usage differed significantly by gender. While males used contracted forms 77% of the times possible. Females did so only 57% of the time.

Another survey- Table 1 shows the frequencies and percentage of e-discourse' feature found in corpus of 1190 words. Students' e-discourse includes a wide range of e-discourse' features. The researchers identified 9 e-discourses' features namely shortening, clippings and contractions, unconventional spellings, word-letter replacement, word-digits replacement, word combination, initialisms and emoticons. It can deduced from our analysis is that regardless of their situation considered noteworthy phenomena. The language of the internet is characterized by unconventional orthography [C]

Table 1. Frequencies and percentage of e-discourse' feature [C]

Appendix 2

Compared quantity of examples

Bibliography

A. Antrushina- English Lexicology - Chapter 2 p. 27-28

B. Coulmas, Florian, ed. The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997. (p. )

C. Crystal, D. (2001). Language and the Internet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (p 21-24)

D. International Handbook of Internet Research, editors: Jeremy Hunsinger,Lisbeth Klastrup,Matthew M. Allen (p. 15)

E. International Journal of English Linguistics; Vol. 5, No. 1; 2015 ; ISSN 1923-869X E-ISSN 1923-8703, Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education (p. 23-29)

F. The Influence of Computers, the Internet and Computer-Mediated Communication on Everyday English by Sandra Greiffenstern (p 27; 174-178)

G. LABOV, W., M. YAEGER, and R. STEINER, 1972, A quantitative study of sound change in progress (U. S. Regional Survey, Philadelphia)

H. Netlinguistics: An Analytical Framework to Study Language, Discourse and Idology in Internet by : Santiago Posteguillo ( p. 112-116)

I. Trudgill, Peter. Sociolinguistics: An introduction to language and society. London: Penguin Books, 1995. (p. 102-106)

Sitography:

1. www.internetslang.com/ ( last visited on 04.04.15)

2. www.news-journalonline.com/article/20130817/NEWS/130819461?p=&tc=pg ( last visited on 04.04.15)

3. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/( last visited on 04.04.15)

4. www.edline.net/pages/Piggott_High_School/Classes/1213_411000_1_0/News/Formal_Writing_Guidelines ( last visited on 04.04.15)

5. study.com/academy/lesson/formal-writing-definition-rules-examples.html ( last visited on 04.04.15)

6. writingclearandsimple.com/2006/01/04/contractions-and-how-not-to-abuse-em/ ( last visited on 04.04.15)

7. www.recombcg.uottawa.ca/Papers/RefConference/1982_Sankoff.pdf ( last visited on 04.04.15)

8. www.blackwellpublishing.com/content/bpl_images/content_store/sample_chapter/0631222243/milroy_01.pdf ( last visited on 04.04.15)

9. dotcomplicated.co/content/2013/02/a-guide-to-decoding-internet-acronyms/ ( last visited on 04.04.15)

10. onlineslangdictionary.com/thesaurus/words+meaning+contractions+(list+of).html ( last visited on 04.04.15)

11. www.shakespearehigh.com/classroom/guide/page2.shtml ( last visited on 04.04.15)

12. www.businesswritingblog.com/business_writing/2006/04/dont_use_contra.html ( last visited on 04.04.15)

13. library.bcu.ac.uk/learner/writingguides/1.20.htm ( last visited on 04.04.15)




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