Teaching sentence structure

The best works of foreign linguists as Henry I Christ, Francis B. Connors and other grammarians. Introducing some of the newest and most challenging concepts of modern grammar. The theoretical signifies are in comparison with Russian and Uzbek languages.




The goal work is dedicated to the English grammar I hope my work will the process of teaching and learning grammar fun and exciting for students, also want to make teaching grammar as easy as possible by providing you with all tools heeded to give students a rich and enjoyable experience.

Grammar becomes exciting and dynamic when you bring the real world into your classroom and bring your class out into the world. The aim of investigation.

1) To acquire a terminology for discussing sentence correctness and effectiveness

2) To look for subjects and verbs when puzzling out the meaning of difficult sentences.

3) To understand how structure clues help identify parts of speech

4) To recognize participles, gerunds, and infinitives and use them to improve sentences

To study the structure of the simple sentence, to make the process of learning grammar understandable.

One of the main tasks of qualification work is the saving private tasks of grammar, to show:

SV Patterns 1 Subject Verb

SVN Pattern 2 Subject Verb Predicate Nominative

SVA Pattern 3 Subject Verb Predicate adjective

SVO Pattern 4 Subject Verb Object

SVIO Pattern 5 Subject Verb Indirect object Direct object

SVOC Pattern 6 Subject Verb Direct object complement

The actually of the work. It is no doubt that student grow toward maturity and independence of thought, as they progress trough the grades.

Explains that, inspire of the great interest to a learning grammar, to the problem sentences structure, there are some difficulties in learning it. There is a great number of some foreign linguists.

In my work I tried to choose the best works of some foreign linguists as Henry I Christ, Francis B. Connors and other grammarians

The novelty of the work. Introduce some of the newest and most challenging concepts of modern grammar. It utilizes new terminology and shows how teachers may begin working new definitions new explanations, and new approaches into the regular language study. Yet the work is arranged so that we can concentrate upon traditional elements.

The theoretical signifies of the work is concluded in comparison with the nature languages Russian and Uzbek, the correlation between the principle parts of the sentences which based on practical application.

1. Practical significance

The practical works are given in the work and tests, what can be used in learning the structure of the sentences on the course of theoretical grammar and at the practical classes of learning English.

The main recourse from where I have taken the material of my qualification work are works done by Henry I Christ Modern English in Action work done by Francis B Connors New voyages in English Material from Internet and world encyclopedia.

1.1 The structure of the Simple Sentence

Every sentence has a subject and a predicament.

Although you may not be like the school boy who wrote the preceding explanation, you will probably welcome a review of grammar. Knowing the names of eight parts of speech and about two dozen other terms will give you tools for improving your writing and speaking. This chapter will also provide a refresher course on fundamentals of sentence structure.

DIAGNOSTIC TEST 1.A Parts of the Simple Sentence.

Copy the italicized words in a column and number them 1 to25. Then, using the abbreviations given below, indicate the use in the sentence of each word. Write the abbreviations in a column to the right of the words.

s.s.-simple subject d.o.-direct object

v.-verb i.o.-indirect speech

p.a.-predicate adjective o.p.-object of preposition

p.n.-predicate noun ap.-appositive

p.pr.-predicate pronoun a.n.-adverbial noun

1. The Pharos of Alexandria, a tall lighthouse, was a wonder of the ancient world.

2. The next day the new neighbors brought us a dinner of spaghetti and delicious sauce.

3. The son of Mr. Oliver, the corner grocer, gave me a piece of apple pie with raisins in it.

4. In the morning the gypsies strung beads a round the neck of the donkey and tied her tail with a bright red ribbon a yard long.

5. What kind of minerals can you find in the old lead mine?

6. The Buddha of Kamakura, a huge bronze statue, is considered one of the most beautiful sights in Japan.

7. The imprint of the fossil shell in the rock was sharp and clear.

In the winter the rock garden looks lifeless and barren.

2. The main part

2.1 Subject, verb

A.1 SENTENCE A sentence expresses a complete thought. It contains a subject and a predicate (or verb) either expresses or understood.

The nation's largest herd of buffalo grazes in Custer State Park.

PREDICATE VERB The predicate verb makes a statement, asks a question, or gives a command.

Statement Custer State Park borders on the Black Hills National Forest in South Dakota.

Question Who was calamity Jane?

Command For an authentic view of the old West visit Custer State Park.

AUXILIARY VERB An auxiliary helps a verb to make a statement, ask a question, or give a command.

The auxiliaries are: (be group) be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being; (have group) has, have, had; (do group) do, does, did; (other) may, might; can, could; shall, should; would, must. With auxiliaries a complete verb can be two, or for words.

Have you ever eaten buffalo steak?

Income from the sale of buffalo meat has been partially paying for the upkeep of Custer State Park.

You should not have been amazed at the sight of buffalo burger stands.

SIMPLE SUBJECT The simple subject answer the question Who? or What? before the verb.

A simple subject is commonly a noun or a pronoun.

Winter temperatures in Alaska may fall to 60 degrees below zero.

(Temperatures answer the question What my fall?)

Fort Yukon has recorded temperatures of 100 degrees above zero in July. (Fort Yukon answer the question What has recorded?)

Write the Alaskan Visitors Association for information about vacations in Alaska. (You, understood, answer the question Who write?)

MODIFIER A modifier is a word or expression that makes clearer or limits the meaning of another word.

For further help see Teacher's Manual.

George Washington planned one of the first American canals. (the first American canals is more limited than canals. The, first, and American modify canals.)

Canalboats were drawn by sturdy mules. (Were drawn by sturdy mules is different from were drawn. By sturdy mules modifies were drawn.)

Complete Subject The complete subject is the simple subject with its modifiers.

A windmill on Nantucket still grinds cornmeal.

COMPLETE PREDIDICATE The complete predicate is the predicate verb its modifiers and the words that complete its meaning.

Words which complete the meaning of a verb are complements or completers. Ordinarily every word in a simple sentence belongs either to the complete subject or the complete predicate.

Windmills were once a common sights along the Massachusetts coasts (The vertical line separates the complete subject from the complete predicate. The complete subject is underline once and the predicate verb twice.)

The first copper coins in the colonies were minted by John Higley at Simsbury, Connecticut.

1. Find the verb.

2. Ask Who? or What? before the verb. Your answer is the simple subject.

3. Find all the words attached to the subject. This step gives you the complete subject.

4. Everything else is the complete predicate.

PRACTICE 1 Expanding Complete Subject and Complete predicates.

Expand each of the italicized subjects and predicates by adding colorful, exact modifiers.

Example: The rain came.

The prayed-for rain came with the crack of thunder and the persistent tattoo of raindrops as big as marbles.

INVERTED ORDER A sentence is inverted when the verb, or part of it, precedes the subject.

In most English sentences the subject precedes the verb.

Inverted order. Along the Hudson River are found reminders of our Dutch heritage.

Reminders of our Dutch heritage are found along the Hudson River.

Was the first elementary school in the United States on Staten Island?

Natural order. The first elementary school in the United States was on Staten Island.

THERE When there begins a sentence in invented order, it is not the subject and does not modify anything.

There is never the subject and doesn`t add anything to the meaning.

Inverted order. There were English settlers in New England before the Pilgrims.

Natural order English settlers were in New England before the Pilgrims.

OVERDOING THERE. Don't overuse there.

Too frequent use of there is monotonous.

OTHER WORDS BEFORE SUBJECT Frequently a portion of the complete predicate precedes the subject. Other words before subject In1889 the first movie. Film was produced in America by Thomas A. Edison.

Natural order. The first movie film was produced in America by Thomas A. Edison in 1889.

ARRANGEMENT FOR STILE Often a portion of the predicate verb can be placed before the complete subject for emphasis, for joining the sentence to the preceding sentence, or for improving the rhythm of the passage in which it occurs.

(Use this device for emphasis only sparingly.)

Emphasis That will never forget. (I will never forget that.)

Sentence rhythm: Suddenly and without warning, the panther leaped suddenly without warning upon the deer).

PRACTICE 2 Rearranging for stile

Rearrange each of the following sentences for increased emphasis or improvement in sentence rhythm.

SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence has one subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound.

Compound Subject: Seagoing cutthroats and thieves once hid along the Carolina coast.

Compound predicate: Blackbeard tarred and caulked his boats in Oracoke Inlet.

Compound Subject and Compound Predicate In 1718 Blackbeard and Srese Bonnet blockaded Charleston and captured five ships.

PRACTICE 3 Finding Subject and Verbs

Copy the following sentences, arranging inverted sentences in their natural order. Rearrange also those sentences that have any part of the predicate before the subject. Then draw one line the under the predicate verb. Separate the complete subject from the complete predicate with a vertical line. Place all modifiers of the verb after the vertical line.

Example: During the Twenties was born the luxurious movie place.

The luxurious movie place was born during the Twenties.


1. In city after city there arose some of the most lavish building of all time.

2. Can you visualize imitation Assyrian temples, Chinese pagodas, Italian palaces?

3. Really, words cannot do justice to the magnificence of these structures.

4. Highly ornamental and spacious were the colorful interiors.

5. In many theaters moonlit skies, twinkling stars, and drifting clouds soothed the air - conditioned customers and transported them to another world.

6. IN a few of these atmospheric paradises, special dawn and sunset effect delighted the moviegoers.

7. Unbelievable was the word for these giant buildings.

8. The Roxy Theater in New York had 6214 seats and room for 110 musicians in the pit of the orchestra.

9. A huge carpet covered the rotunda and required the services of many persons for maintenance.

10. Each evening the ushers had a changing-of-guard ceremony of considerable intricacy and split-second precision.

11. Have these elaborate showpieces survived changing tastes and habits?

12. Unfortunately, most have been demolished and have been replaced with supermarkets, garages, and parking lots.


A word becomes a part of speech when its used in a sentence.

NOUN: A noun is a name.

Nouns name:

a. Persons, animals, places, things.

Many Americans have come to know the Hudson River throught the stories of Washington Irving and the canvases of the Hudson River painters.

b. Collection or groups of persons, animals, or things (collective nouns)

The council named a safety committee.

c. Qualities conditions, actions, processes, and ideas (abstract nouns)

The declaration of Independence upheld the right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

PRONOUN A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.

Because a pronoun substitutes or stands in for a noun, it avoids tiresome repetition of the noun. The word the pronoun refers to is its antecedent.

In his tales Washington Irving peopled the Hudson valley with comic Dutchmen, headless horsemen, and bowling gnomes. (His is used instead of Washington Irving)

These are commonly used pronouns:

Speaker: I, me, mine, we, us, our, ours.

Person spoken to: you, your, yours.

Person or things spoken of: he, him, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs.

Other pronouns: who, whom.

Several pronouns are formed by adding self or selves to other pronouns: myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, itself, himself, herself, themselves,

Some pronouns are formed by joining some, any, every, and no to body, one and thing: somebody, someone, something, anybody, nothing.

All, another, any, both, each, either, few, many, neither, one, other, several, some, this, these, that, those, which, whose, and what are usually pronouns when they stand alone but are modifiers, not pronouns, when they modify nouns.

VERB Verbs make statement about persons, places, or things, ask questions, or give commands.

Statements: Some historians still question Captain John Smith's account of his adventures.

Question: Did Pocahontas actually rescue him?

Command: Read Marshall Fishwick`s article Was John Smith a Liar? in American Heritage.

ADJECTIVE An adjective is a word that describes or limits a noun or pronoun.

An adjective usually answers one of these questions: Which? What kind of How many? How much? A, an, and the, the most common adjectives, are also called articles. Mountains are climbing, study book, Boston 2003

By 1700 there were 80,000 settlers in the low-lying areas along the New England coast and in the great central valley of Connecticut and Massachusetts.

The massive oak door opened.

The subject and predicate, placed on a straight line, are separated by a short vertical line. Adjectives are placed on slant lines under the words they modify.

ADVERB An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

Adverbs not only answer the questions When? Where? How?' Why? How much? and How often? but also help to ask questions.

Where and when did Oliver Hazard Perry defeat the British navy?

Many adverbs and some adjectives end in ly.

To the tune of a lively polka the dancers whirled merrily about the hall.

(Lively is an adjective modifying polka. Merrily is an adverb modifying whirled.)

The extremely important meeting was quite poorly attended.

Adverbs are placed on slant lines under the words they modify. The adverb extremely modifies the adjective important. The adverb poorly modifies the verb was attended. The adverb quite modifies the adverb poorly.

If two or more words are used as a single unit, check the dictionary to see if the group is given as a separate entry. If so, diagram the group as though it were one word. Examples of such groups are Bay of Fundy, Siamese cat, and post office.

PREPOSITION A preposition shows the relation of the noun or pronoun following it to some other word in the sentence.

About seventy words may be used as prepositions: about, above, across, after, against, along, among, etc.

The story of Los Angeles begins with a Portuguese sea captain in the employ of Spain.

A preposition may be two or more words.

According to by means of in regard to on account of

Ahead of by way of in spite of out of

Because of in front of instead of up of

OBJECT OF PREPOSITION The noun or pronoun after a preposition is the object of the preposition.

In 1542 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo sailed up the west coast of Mexico to San Pedro Bay.

PHRASE A phrase is a group of related words not containing a subject and a predicate.

Phrases may be used as nouns, adjectives or adverbs.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE consists of a preposition and its object, which may or may not have modifiers.

A prepositional phrase is ordinary used like an adjective or an adverb.

One of California's most prosperous missions was built near the present site of Los Angeles.

A preposition is placed on a slant line, and its object is put on a horizontal line joined to the slant line. Nouns and pronouns in the possessive case (see California's) are used like adjectives.

PRACTICE 4 Identifying Parts of speech.

Diagram the following sentences.

OR Copy the following sentences, skipping every other line. Underline the simple subject once and the predicate verb twice. Write adj. over every adjective and adv. Over every adverb. Enclose prepositional phrases in parentheses.

Example: Berea College is located in a beautiful town in central Kentucky.


1. Visitors at the college walk along tree-shaded lanes to the various workshops of the college.

2. Many college industries operate successfully.

3. Students work at various activities for ten hours during each weak.

4. The profitable enterprises help with college expenses.

5. A beautiful hotel in town is owned by the college.

6. Student waitresses serve in the cheerful dining room.

7. Other students work busily at administrative jobs in the hotel.

8. A dairy farm is operated by the students.

9. Excellent baked goods are distributed throughout a large area.

10. Clever toys are sold in local shops.

11. Furniture of superior quality is turned out by student craftsmen.

12. Cooperative education has prospered for a century at Berea College.

CONJUNCTION A connects words or groups of words.

Conjunction is from conjugate, a Latin word meaning to join together

Conjunctions, unlike prepositions, do not have objects.

A natural ice mine in Pennsylvania forms ice in the spring and summer but never in the winter months.) Mountains are climbing, study book, Boston 2003

Before the Revolutionary War, Kentucky and Tennessee were known to the Indians as the Middle Ground or the Dark and Bloody Ground. (And connects Kentucky with Tennessee. Or connects as the Middle Ground with the Dark and Bloody Ground. And connects dark with bloody.)

1. Shell heaps, village sites, and stone implements were left in the eastern United States by prehistoric Asiatic migrants.

The conjunction and is placed on a broken line between the words it connects. The x indicates that a conjunction is understood.

2. For several generations their descendants lived along the riverbanks and subsisted on fish, small game, roots, and nuts.

The conjunction and connects the verbs lived and subsisted. The prepositional phrases for several generations are attached to the single predicate line because it modifies both verbs. Notice the diagramming of the four objects of the same preposition.


Conjunctions used in pairs are called paired conjunctions, or correlatives: both and; either or; neither nor; not only but also.

Both archaeologists and anthropologists have speculated about these people.

Neither the wheel nor the horse was known to the prehistoric Indians.

Neither and nor are correlative conjunctions and are placed between the words they connect. Notice how neither is joined to nor.

INTERJECTION An interjection is a word or form of speech that expresses strong or sudden feeling.

An interjection has no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence.

Look! This Indian pipe is made in the form of a man's figure. Oh, don't touch it!

A WORD AS DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH to find the part of speech of a word, always ask you the question What does the word do in the sentence?


Verb states, asks, commands

Noun, pronoun names

Adjective, adverb modifies, clarifies

Preposition introduces, shows-relationships

Conjunction connects

Interjection exclaims

Some words may be used as a number of different parts of speech.

Noun: There's a well in Uncle George's backyard.

Verb: Tears sometimes well up in Mrs. Simpson's eyes when she talks of her dead dog.

Adjective: Don't you feel well today?

Adverb: Stir the pudding well or it will scorch.

PRACTICE 5 Recognizing Words as Different Parts of Speech

Give orally the part of speech of each italicized word.

1. Bud waited within. 2. Bud waited within the house.

3. Oil your skates. 4. Put oil on your skates.

5. I'll take those. 6. I'll take those apples.

7. Birds eat insects. 8. Birds eat insect pests.

9. We walked across the ice. 10. We walked across.

11. We'll paper the kitchen next. 12. Mother chose a green paper.

13. We must sand the icy walks. 14. We used sand from the yard.

15. Marie likes her amethyst ring. 16. Her favorite stone is an amethyst.

17. I'll take that cantaloupe. 18. That's the one.

19. The story is sad but true. 20. No one knows the truth but me.

PRACTICE 6 Using a word as Different Parts of Speech.

Write sentences in which you use each of the following word as the different parts of speech named after it. Consult a dictionary if you need help.

1. flower-adjective, noun, verb.

2. on-adverb, preposition

3. tan-adjective, noun, verb

4. beyond - adverb, preposition

5. off - adverb, preposition

6. this-adjective, pronoun

7. neither-adjective, conjunction, pronoun

8. down-adverb, noun, preposition, verb

9. round - adjective, noun, preposition, verb

10. fair - adjective, adverb, noun


Three excellent clues to part of speech are (1) position in the sentence, (2) endings, and (3) signal words.


Verbs. The verb occurs in an important position in the structure of a sentence. What you already know about English sentence structure will help you identify verbs.

The basketball player-down the court.

Where did you - the camera?

Any word you supply is a verb: ran, dribbled; leave, put.

Of course many words that can be used as verb are also used as other parts of speech - for example, fall down (verb) a sudden fall (noun). Example the entire sentence before trying to determine part of speech.

Nouns. Most nouns make a meaningful pattern with is or are at the beginning of a sentence.

Desk is friends are

Nouns often precede verbs: trees grow, student read, Jim hopes.

Of course many words that can be used as nouns are used also as other parts of speech-for example, brown thread, (noun), thread the needle (verb). A word is probable a noun if it completes a pattern like one of these:

- cannot live in polluted waters.

Near the - we found a-with a-

Adjectives: Most adjectives readily fit into three common position in the sentence: the normal, the predicate, and the appositive positions. A word is probably an adjective if it completes one of the following patterns:

Normal position Two-boys caught a-fish in the - stream.

Predicate Susan is usually -.

Appositive position: The coach, - and-, spoke proudly to his winning team.

Adverbs. Most words that fit into more than one place in a sentence are adverbs. Emphasis frequently determines placement.

Cheerfully the hostess greeted her arriving guests.

The hostess greeted her arriving guests cheerfully.

The hostess cheerfully greeted her arriving guests.

Carl lifted his hand - and moved his rook.

Or: Carl-lifted his hand and moved his rook.


Certain suffixes and other endings provide additional help in indicating part of speech. A suffix is an addition to a word that helps create a new word. It doesn`t guarantee that a word will be a certain part of speech, but it does provide a clue.

Verbs. Common verb suffixes are ate, en, fy, ize, and ish: pollinate, strengthen, magnify, realize, admonish.

Common verb endings, which may occur with the preceding suffixes, are ing, ed, d, and t: was trying, hoped, told, and slept.

Nouns. Most nouns have a plural form, usually ending in`s and a possessive form ending in`s or s`

Singular desk Singular possessive desk's

Friend friend's

Plural desks Plural possessive desks`

Friends friends`

Certain suffixes are frequently used for nouns.

- ance (ence) reliance, audience - ion action

- ation nomination - ling weakling

- craft handicraft - ment abridgment

- dom freedom - ness politeness

- ee absentee - or creditor

- er officer - ry rivalry

- ess waitress - ship friendship

- ette launderette - th length

- ics ethics - tude fortitude

Adjectives. Certain suffixes are frequently used for adjectives.

- able (ible) portable - fic terrific

- ac (ic) aquatic - ful careful

- al (ical) inimical - ile infantile

- an (ian) Bostonian - ish boyish

- ant (ent) evident - ive passive

- ary military - less careless

- ed wicked - like homelike

- en oaken - ous generous

- ern northern - some loathsome

- esque grotesque - y cheery

Adverbs. Many adverbs are formed by adding ly to an adjective: free, freely; strict, strictly; certain, certainly. (Ly, however, is not a sure sign, for many adjectives are formed by adding ly to a noun: king, kingly; time, timely. The final test of part of speech is use in a sentence.)

Common adverb suffixes are wise, ward, and long: likewise, home-ward, and sidelong. (But what part of speech is sidelong in a sidelong glance?) The suffix is no guarantee of part of speech. Always test use in the sentence.

Signal words

Certain words signal that particular parts of speech will follow.

Words That Signal Verbs. Auxiliaries like may, can, will, could signal verbs. Words like he, it, or they also signal verbs. Read the word aloud, placing he, it, or they before it, and if the expression makes sense, the word can be used as a verb.


prep. n. adj. adj. n. v. prep. adj. n. conj. v.

In 1811 the first steamboat sailed down the Mississippi and inaugurated

adj. adj. n. prep. n.

a new era in navigation.


A.1. The New Orleans left an enthusiastic crowd in Pittsburgh and headed into the Ohio River.

2. The boat stopped frequently along the way and received the congratulations of settlers along the river.

3. Most people still doubted the practicality of the steamboat.

4. After a suspenseful delay the boat successfully sailed through the dangerous rapids in the river at Louisville.

5. After this success the crew endured severe earthquakes and pursuit by warlike Indians.

6. Roots, stumps, and channels shifted during the turbulent quakes.

7. A fire destroyed part of the forward cabin.

8. Despite the setbacks, the New Orleans finally reached Natchez.

B. 1. The New Orleans later foundered on a stump.

2. Other steamboats soon appeared and dominated river traffic.

3. Great expense was lavished on cabins and fittings.

4. Captains took pride in the speed of their vessels.

5. Steamboat races were officially discouraged but were unofficially encouraged.

6. Boiler explosions plagued operations from the earliest days.

7. In early years the boats were constructed without plans.

8. The famous Robert E. Lee was built by this rule-of-thumb method.


SPECIFIC NOUNS Use vigorous, specific nouns.

We surprised a bird and an animal near the pond.

2. Avoid lazy, vague, thingy substitutes for clear thinking.

Indefinite: in the old trunk we discovered three things.

Definite: In the old trunk we discovered a bettered canteen, a letter from a Georgia lieutenant, and a Confederate bank note.

POWERFUL VERBS Seek colorful, exact verbs.

Nouns and verbs provide the sinews of the sentence.

Freddie made a face when he tasted the cough medicine.

CONTROLLED ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. Use adjectives and adverbs for specific effects. Do not pile unnecessary detail upon detail by overusing these helpful words.

Ordinarily use a colorful noun (miser) instead of a weak adjective plus a general noun (greedy person). Ordinarily use a vigorous verb (scamper) instead of a weak adverb plus general verb (run hastily).

WORD FOR PHRASE Use a phrase only when the single word will add neither additional information nor desired emphasis

Ordinarily say speedily, not with great speed; the red-brick house, not the house of red brick.

PRACTICE 8 Improving sentences.

A. For each general underlined noun substitute a more specific noun.

1. For dessert we had fruit and cake.

2. In the drawer there were four things

3. At the nursery Dad bought a tree, a shrub, and a flower

4. My brother has three unusual pets.

5. During gym one squad played one game; the second squad played an other

B. Using the suggestions for improving style, make the following sentences more vigorous and concise.

1. The puppy with the brown fur walked unsteadily along the hall

2. During our vacation in Arizona we enjoyed skies of blue and days with sun.

3. Mel was not a cowardly person, but he was very much afraid of injections.

4. In Holland the shoes of wood protect against the fields of mud

5. Modern very tall buildings often look like peaks of glass.

WORD WITH DOUBLE ROLES Some words perform two jobs at the same time.

Have you ever seen my cousin's collection of seashells?

Cousin's plays a double role. It modifies collection like an adjective. It is modified by my like a noun. It performs both jobs at the same time. There are six common groups of words that play double roles.

1. The possessive noun acts like a noun and an adjective. It is diagramed like an adjective.

My young brother's laughter is a happy sound in our house. (Brother `s modifies laughter: my and young modify brother's.).

2. The possessive pronoun acts like a pronoun and an adjective. It is diagramed like an adjective. These are common possessive pronouns: my, our, ours, his-before a noun-her, its, and their.

The old soldiers took off their hats as the flag went by. (Their modifies hats like an adjective; it has an antecedent, soldiers, like a pronoun)

3. The adverbial noun acts like a noun and an adverb. It is a diagramed like an adverbial prepositional phrase.

4. The participle acts like a verb and an adjective.

5. The gerund acts like a verb and a noun.

6. The infinitive acts like a verb and a noun, a verb and an adjective, or a verb and an adverb.

PRACTICE 9 Studying words of Double Function.

Which words in the following sentences play a double role? Explain.

1. My dad waited two years for his present job.

2. An old dog's loyalty is a priceless gift.

3. His father worked in a manufacturing plant.

4. On a quiet Saturday Mr. Parker can match two average days' output of work.

5. Ted fell seven feet from the top of the ladder but was unhurt.


Every sentence has a back a backbone-the simple subject and the predicate verb. It may also have, as part of the backbone, a complement or completer of the verb. Five complements are the predicate adjective, the predicate noun, the predicate pronoun, the direct object, and the indirect object.

2.2 Subject Verb, Predicate Nominative

PREDICATE NOUN AND PREDICATE PRONOUN A predicate noun or predicate pronoun answer the question Who? or What? after a linking verb.

The predicate noun or predicate pronoun, except after a negative, means the same as the subject. (Predicate nouns and predicate pronouns are also called predicate nominatives.)

The area within five hundred miles of Kansas City is the tornado incubator of the United States. (Area=incubator)

A fishing rod is a stick with a hook at one end and a fool at the other. - Samuel Johnson (fishing rod=stick)

Four of our first five Presidents were Virginians.

Virginians, the predicate noun, answers the question What? after the verb and means the same as the subject. The line slants toward the subject.

Certain verbs in the passive voice become linking verbs and may take predicate nouns or predicate pronouns.

Examples: are appoint, call, choose, consider, elect, name, and vote.

The Spanish colonies have been called the head quarters for a treasure hunt.

2.3 Subject, Verb, Predicate Adjective

PREDICATE ADJECTIVE A predicate adjective completes a linking verb and describes the subject.

Predicate adjectives are frequently used after forms of the verb be, become, grow, taste, seem, appear, look, feel, smell and sound.

The Zuni Indians of the New Mexico are famous for their rain dances. Because of the Indian drums the settlers grew more and more uneasy.

The predicate adjective uneasy completes the predicate and describes the subject. The conjunction and joins the two adverbs more and more.

Not every adjective in the predicate is a predicate adjective.

Our coach is a keen student of baseball (Keen modifies the predicate noun student and is not a predicate adjective.)

ADJECTIVE POSITION Most adjectives readily fit into three common positions in the sentence.

Normal position: An English chemist provided the first funds for the Smithsonian Institution. (The italicized adjectives precede the nouns they modify.)

Predicate position: The Smithsonian Institution is unique in the diversity of its collections (the italicized adjective follows the linking verb see)

Appositive position: Its American gold-coin collection, outstanding for its completeness, fascinates many visitors.

PRACTICE 10 Using Complements in Sentences.

Put each of the following verbs into a sentence with a predicate adjective, a predicate noun, or a predicate pronoun, Label each complement p.a., p.n., or p.pr.

am became looks tasted were elected

is felt smells has been appointed was named

will be grew sounded are considered were voted

2.4 Subject, Verb, Object

The direct object answers the question Who? or What? after an action verb.

Samuel Slater introduced the cotton mill to the United States. (Introduced what? Cotton mill.)

Like the English mill owners, Slater employed children in his factory. (Employed whom? Children.)

1. For his workers he built the first Sunday school in New England.

Sunday School, the direct object, is separated from the verb by a short vertical line.

2. The course of study included reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion.

Notice the compound direct object on horizontal lines.

PRACTICE 11 Recognizing Other Parts of the Sentence.

Diagram the following sentences.

OR Copy following sentences, skipping every other line. Underline the simple or compound subject once and every predicate verb twice. Put parentheses around prepositional phrases. Write p.a. (predicate adjective), p, n.) Predicate noun), d.o. (direct object) above every word used in one of these ways.

(In 1900) an obscure writer created a work (of lasting fame).


A. 1. (After failures in several different fields,) L. Frank Baum wrote. The Wizard of Oz.

B. 1. Twice Baum announced the end (of the series)

2.5 Subject Verb, Indirect Object, Direct Object

When a direct object (answering the question What? or Whom?) is used, an indirect object is sometimes used also, answering the question To whom? or For whom?.

The indirect object usually comes between the verb and the direct object. Placing to or for before an indirect object does not usually change the sense.

The Scarecrow gave Dorothy directions. (Gave to whom? Dorothy.)

Dad built me a pigeon coop. (Build for? Me)

At the statue of Emmeline Labiche, Aunt Sally told Shirley and me the legend of Evangeline.

Shirley and me, the compound indirect object of told, are diagramed like the compound object of a preposition. Shirley and me answer the question Told to whom?

PRACTICE 12. Picking Out Direct and Indirect Objects

Read each sentence aloud. Identify direct and indirect objects.


1. After an accident, John Smith dutifully offered the policeman his services as a witness.

2. Tell me your name.

3. Smith gave the officer his name.

4. The officer groaned. Do me a favor. Give me your real name.

5. I've told you the truth.

6. After three futile tries Smith told the officer, Napoleon Bonaparte.

7. That's better, said the policeman. People have given me that Smith nonsense too often.

PRACTICE 13 Using Direct and Indirect Objects Effectively

By using indirect objects and eliminating useless words, combine each pair of sentences into one good sentence.

Example: Yankee peddlers sold tin ware, pins, gingham, and ribbons. They sold these to housewives.

Yankee peddlers sold housewives tin ware pins, gingham, and ribbons.

1. Uncle Ted sent a carved chess set from the Black Forest. He sent it to me.

2. In shop I am making bookcase. I am making it for my brother.

3. Aunt Pauline wanted me to have a seed necklace. She sent it to me from Puerto Rico.

4. Send the directions. Please let me have them before Saturday.

5. Dad built three new birdhouses. He built them for the wrens.

6. Can you make a poster? Will you make one for us for Book Week?

PRACTICE 14. Using Direct and Indirect Objects in Sentences W

Select five of the following and in good sentences use each as a direct object and as an indirect object

Example: Sally and him

We invited Sally and him to the Bob Cummings Play at the summer playhouse. (Direct object)

We sent Sally and him tickets for the third row. (Indirect object)

him them her and her friend

her him and Sandy my sister and him

us her and him her and Alice

me Mother and me her and me

APPOSITIVE An appositive is a word or expression which explains the noun or pronoun it follows and names the same person, place, or thing.

Baseball, a popular American game, developed from One Old Cat, a favorite in colonial times. (Baseball= game; One Old Cat=Favorite)

An appositive and a predicate noun are similar. The difference is that a verb connects the subject and the predicate noun, while an appositive follows a word directly and is generally set off by commas.

Appositive: The Homestake, this country's largest gold mine, is in Lead, South Dakota.

Predicate noun: The Homestake is this country's largest gold mine.

Bloody Basin, the locate of several Zane Grey novels, is still a primitive area.

Locale is in apposition with Bloody Basin. An appositive is placed after the word it explains and is enclosed in parentheses. The and of several Zane Grey novels modify locale.

ADVERBIAL NOUN Nouns which indicate distance, time, weight, or value are often used as adverbs.

The ill-fated Shenandoah was almost three city blocks long. (How 25000 long? Blocks.)

Before its crash in 1925 this famous dirigible had flown 25,000 miles. (How much? Miles.)

1. Last Summer Paul, Chris, and I rode a mule-drawn barge on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Summer, a noun used as an adverb, modified the verb rode. It is diagramed like the object of a preposition.

2. The square, wooden houses of prosperous New England sea captains were usually three stories high.

Stories, a noun used as an adverb, modify the predicate adjective high.

PRACTICE 15. Identifying Parts of the Simple Sentence

Diagram the following sentences.

OR Copy the following sentences, Skipping every other line. Underline every simple or compound subject once and every predicate verb twice. Enclose every prepositional phrase in parentheses. Identify all forms listed below. Write the abbreviation above the word.

p.a.-predicate i.o.-indirect adjective

p.n.-predicate noun o.p.-object of preposition

p.pr.-predicate pronoun ap.-appositive

d.o.-direct object a.n.-adverbial noun


A. 1. The medicine man is a stock character (in many Western movies and novels)

2. (According to the salesman) his snake oil could cure any ailment.

3. His comical behavior has given modern movie-goers many laughs.

4. (In a serious vein) he symbolizes the lack (of protection) (for the citizens) (of yesterday)

5. Lack (of uniform legislation) and inadequate protection endangered the heals (of all Americans) sixty years ago.

6. Foods and drugs were not regulated (for the welfare) (of all)

7. Sellers (of medicines) made impossible claims.

8. Foods were packaged (under unsanitary conditions.)

9. Weights were dishonest.

10. Narcotics (in medicines) caused drug addiction.

B. 1. Expensive foods were adulterated (with cheaper substitutes)

2. (For proof) (of the genuineness) (of his product) one manufacturer put a dead bee (in every jar) (of artificial honey)

3. Harmful chemical preservatives were indiscriminately added (to foods)

4. Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, chief chemist (of the Department of Agriculture), was a crusader (for regulation)

5. His stand was un popular (with many groups) (of people)

6. Each year new opponents attacked Dr. Wiley.

7. He had a powerful ally, President Theodore Roosevelt.

8. (After many difficulties) a bill was passed and was sent (To the President)

9. (In 1906) the bill became a low and opened a new era (in public health)

10. (IN 1956) (on the fiftieth anniversary) (of the law's passage) Dr. Wiley's portrait was placed (on a commemorative stamp)

MASTERY TEST 1B Parts of the Simple Sentence


Copy the italicized words s a column and number them 1 to 25. Then, using the following abbreviations, indicate the use in the sentence of each word. Write the abbreviations in a column to the right of the words.

s.s.-simple subject d.o.-direct object

v.-verb i.o.-indirect object

p.a.-predicate adjective o.p.-object of preposition

p.n.-predicate noun ap.-appositive

p.pr.-predicate pronoun a.n.-adverbial noun

1. The chief source of lead is galena, a gray mineral.

2. Were elephants ever native to America?

3. The next week Ralph, an excellent pitcher, became a member of the team.

4. Is that frisky hamster a pet of yours?

5. A few minutes later the sky was growing red and purple and just a little darker.

6. For Easter Grandmother Lane bought Susie a new red bonnet with a feather on it.

7. Tom and Huck adopted Joe as a member of their club and taught him all their secret signs.

8. Betsy, a skilled mimic, reenacted the scene with deadly realism.

When your test has been marked, turn to the first page of the book and following directions, prepare your achievement graph for the year. Then enter on the graph your mark in Test 1. During the year enter on this graph your mark in every mastery test.

2.6 Subject, Verb, Direct Object, Complement

ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT An adjective complement completes the verb and refers to the direct object.

It is the usually a noun or an adjective.

The juniors chose Sam Ackerson class orator. (Chose Sam Ackerson what? Orator. The noun orator refers to the direct object; Sam Ackerson.)

The executioner found Sydney Carton ready. (Found Sydney Carton what? Ready. The adjective ready refers to the direct object, Sydney Carton.)

Do not mistake a sentence with a indirect object for a sentence with an objective complement.

Ellen made Dad a knitted tie. (Made for Dad a tie. Dad is the indirect object; tie is the direct object.)

Ellen made Dad proud of her. (Made Dad what? Proud. Dad is the direct object; proud is the objective complement.)

A verb which takes an objective complement in the active voice may in the passive voice take a predicate noun or a predicate adjective.


Objective complement: The basketball team chose Frank captain.


Predicate noun: Frank was chosen captain by the basketball team.


Objective complement: Dad has painted our boat maroon.

Predicate adjective: Our boat have been painted maroon by Dad.

The active voice with the objective complement is usually more vivid and forceful than the passive.

1. Mrs. Hollis considers the dictionary the most valuable reference book.

The objective complement reference book completes the verb and refers to the direct object, dictionary. The line slants toward the object.

2. Years of care and anxiety had made George Washington homesick for Mount Vernon and eager for a quiet retirement.

Homesick eager are a compound objective complement. They complete the verb had made and refers to the direct object, George Washington.

PRACTICE 16. Using the Objective Complement

Change each of the following sentences in the passive voice to a sentence in the active voice. Use an objective complement in each. Underline the objective complement.

Example: I was made afraid by the sudden noise.

The sudden noise made me afraid.

1. Sally was elected president by the junior class.

2. Sue Johnson was voted most popular by the senior class.

3. The brown grass was sprayed green by Dad.

4. Jim is considered a great with by his friends.

5. The pink dogwood is considered by many people the most people the most beautiful flowering tree.

RETAINED OBJECT A verb which takes an indirect object in the active voice may in the passive voice retain a direct object (called the retained object).

Active voice, with indirect object: Mr. Tompkins gave the new pitcher his instructions (Instructions is the direct object; pitcher is the indirect object.)

Passive voice with retained object: The new pitcher was given his instructions by Mr. Tompkins. (Instructions is the retained object)

The active voice with an indirect object is usually preferable to the passive voice with a retained object. Where the doer of the action is unknown or unimportant, however, the retained object is a useful device.

For the prevention of scurvy each British sailor was allotted a daily ration of lemon juice. (Ration is the retained object)

The astronaut was an awarded a medal for his achievements.

The retained object medal is separated from the verb by a wavy line.

RETAINED INDIRECT OBJECT An indirect object may also be retained in the passive voice.

Active voice: They gave the winner of the spelling bee a prize.

Passive voice: A prize was given the winner of the spelling bee. (Winner is a retained indirect object. The passive does not emphasize the doer of the action.)

Two hamsters were given him for Christmas.

The retained indirect object him is diagramed like a regular indirect object.

PRACTICE 17. Identifying Parts of the Simple Sentence D

Diagram the following sentences.

OR Copy the following sentences, skipping every other line. Underline every simple or compound subject once and every predicate verb twice. Enclose every prepositional phrase in parentheses. Identify all forms listed below. Write the abbreviation above the word.

p.a.-predicate adjective ap.-appositive

p.n.-predicate noun a.n.-adverbial noun

p.pr.-predicate pronoun o.c.-objective complement

d.o.-direct object r.o.-retained object

i.o.-indirect objects r.i.o.-retained indirect object

o.p.-object of preposition

1 We found Scott uneasy (about his examination).

2. The boys were given excellent advice (for the selection) (of a college).

3. Heavy insulation will make the doghouse warm and cozy.

4. The princes in The Lady or the Tiger? is given two choices.

5. Dad painted the living room a light shade (of green)

6 A reward was offered her.

PRACTICE 18 Using Retained Objects

Change each of the following sentences with indefinite subjects into sentences with retained objects.

Example: They gave us three suggestions for starting a coin collection.

We were given three suggestions for starting a coin collection.

1. They gave the pirates five minutes for their decision.

2. they told us nothing about the change in regulations

3. They gave us a week for filing final applications.

4. They awarded Perry Mason's client a substantial judgment.

5. They sent us folders on careers.

PRACTICE 19 Changing Passive to Active

Change each of the following sentences with retained object to forceful sentences in the active voice.

Example: I was given a pearl necklace by Aunt Martha.

Aunt Martha gave me a pearl necklace.

1. I was told my favorite story about my father's childhood escapades by my grandmother.

2. Johnny was sent a real Swiss cowbell by Uncle Ted.

3. I was given some foreign currency by Mrs. Walker.

4. Paul was done a favor by Dan Abrams.

5. The guests were played a lively folk tune by the orchestra.


VERBAL A verbal is a verb form used like an adjective, a noun, or an adverb.

Like verbs, verbal can have complements and adverbial modifiers. They cannot, however, be predicate verbs.

NOT A SENTENCE The flag still is flying over Fort McHenry. Modern English in Action, Henry I. Christ, DC Heath and company, Boston 2001

A SENTENCE The flag was still flying over Fort McHenry.

A SENTENCE Francis Scott Key saw the flag still flying over Fort McHenry.

PARTICIPLE A participle is a form of the verb that is used only as an adjective

A participle is part adjective and part verb. Many participles end in ing, ed, or d. The participles of the verb carry are carrying, carried, having carried, being carried, having been carried.

To find out what word a participle modifies, ask the question Who? or What? about it.

Stately mansions built by whaling captain line the cobblestone streets of Nantucket. (What were built? Mansions. Built modifies mansions.)

Among the houses lining the elm-shaded street are three large ones known as the Three Bricks (Lining is a participle modifying houses; known is a participle modifying ones.)

1. A biography written by Parson Weems established Francis Marion as the Robin Hood of the Revolution.

A participle is placed partly on a slanting line, like an adjective, and partly on a horizontal line, like a verb. As an adjective, written modifies biography; as a verb, it is modified by the adverb phrase by Parson Weems.

2. Having served his country as a regular officer for five years, Marion began his career as a partisan in 1780.

The participle having served as an adjective modifies Marion; as a verb, it takes a direct object, country, and is modified by two adverbs phrases, as a regular officer and for five years.

PARTICIPIAL PHRASE A participle and the words that modify it or complete its meaning form a participial phrase.

Using his experience as an Indian fighter and his knowledge of the gloomy cypress swamps, Marion shrewdly planned his raids. (The participial phrase contains two prepositional phrases, as an Indian fighter and of the gloomy cypress swamps, and two direct objects, experience and knowledge.)

PRACTICE 20 Explaining Participles

Diagram the following sentences.

OR Copy every participle and explain its use in the sentence.


1. Born in1810, P.T. Barnum held a variety of jobs in his early years.

2. Having studied people carefully, he soon discovered the power of curiosity.

3. Barnum's museum was a display of oddities collected from various places on earth.

4. Some of the oddities were fakes manufactured by Barnum.

5. Having joined the body of a monkey and the tail of a fish, Barnum exhibited a mermaid.

6. He once exhibited a pickpocket caught by the police.

A. 1. General Tom Thump and the Woolly Horse were two other famous oddities exhibited by Barnum.

2. Barnum, having directed a parade of ten elephants on Broadway, kept one elephants for publicity purposes.

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