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The basis of the study of economic systems of the countries of the world. Description of the administrative command system. Estimation of the market system and its implementation by the countries. Post-industrial society as a modern economic system.

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Язык английский
Дата добавления 24.03.2014

Plan

1. The theoretical basis of the study of economic systems of the countries of the world

1.1 Basic approaches to the classification of countries

1.2 The essence of economic system and its types

2. Types of economic systems in the countries of the world

2.1 Description of the administrative command system and its characteristics

2.2 Estimation of the market system and its implementation by the countries of the world

3. Post-industrial society as a modern economic system

Conclusions

List of literature

economic market administrative command

Introduction.

The economic system is totality associate and certain by character of well-organized elements of economy, formative economic structure of society. Out of system character of economy economic relations and institutes would not be reproduced (constantly to recommence), would not could to exist economic conformities to law, would not be folded theoretical comprehension of the economic phenomena and processes, would not could to be the co-ordinated and effective economic politics. The use of concept of the system has long history going away to ancient epoch.

In translation from Greek " the system" means some unit being from the parts constrained inter se and formative integrity. For description of any system usually distinguish her elements, levels organizations, structure.

In the last decades widely an idea develops about an economy, as about the system, characterized by the presence of certain elements and connections between them. Out of system character of economy economic relations and institutes would not be reproduced(constantly to recommence), realized economic conformities to law, there would not be a theoretical comprehension of the economic phenomena and processes, and also there would not be the co-ordinated and effective economic politics.

The economic system is totality of all economic processes accomplished in society on the basis of the relations of property and economic mechanism folded in him. Understanding essence of the system, it is possible to understand many conformities to law of economic life.

Actuality of work consists in that the basic elements of the economic system are socio-economic relations being based on the patterns of ownership folded in every economic system on economic resources and results of economic activity; organizational forms of economic activity; economic mechanism.

In home economic science it is possible the main problem of modern period of forming of the scientific economic systems to count the problem of combination of universal, mine-out a world economic idea approaches, with the necessity of reflection of difficult picture of modern economic reality in Russia and traditions of home scientific school.

In economic science there were two going near the study of modern society : structure and civilization. Essence of structure approach consists of that as deep reason of development of human society the change of his productive basis and corresponding to her pattern of ownership is examined on economic resources, that determine all complex of economic, political, legal and other forms of human commonunication on the different stages of development of society.

It should be noted that the row of defects is inherent structure approach. It, in particular, behaves to the statement of passing in the development of entire countries and people through five structures: primitively-communal, slave-holding, feudal, capitalist and communist, and also to the excessive accent on antagonistic character of relations.

Initial positions of structure approach and modern world are here used examined as consisting of the economic different typing systems.

The aim of this work are classification and analysis of the economic systems and models, and also history of classification of international countries.

Аrticle of work are all economic systems in the different states on the whole.

Оbject of work development, classification of the economic systems, is in the countries of the world. Historical classification must include the systems of the past and future besides the modern systems.

Borders separating the economic systems from each other it is been is industrial-and scientific and technical to revolution. Into each of these systems more detailed typology is possible, that allows to set ways for a synthesis structure and civilization approaches.

The basic elements of the economic system are socio-economic relations being based on folded in every economic system patterns of ownership on economic resources and results economic to activity; organizational forms of economic activity; economic mechanism.

Classification of countries is related to dividing of world economy into the spheres of economic activity and determination of basic economic intercommunications between them allow not only to analyse progress of separate countries trends but also compare them inter se. However in the world on the whole approximately 200 countries that is very different on the level of economic development.

And knowledge of classifications is emergency it is important for a mutual study and exchange experience of economic development. The definition of country accepted in a world economy differs from the determination accepted in an international law or ordinary. Within the framework of world economy a country not only territorial units, being the state but also some territorial units that are not the states, are considered, however pursuing an independent and independent economic policy and conduct the separate statistical account of the economic development. It touches some island dependent territories of Great Britain, Netherlands and France, that, being not the independent states examined, nevertheless, by an international economy as separate countries.

1. The theoretical basis of the study of economic systems of the countries of the world

1.1 Basic approaches to the classification of countries

When first considering the world economy looks like a conglomerate of about 230 countries and territories. They vary greatly in terms of territory, population, economic strength levels and technological development etc. on one side -- such highly developed countries like the United States, Japan, Germany; on the opposite-underdeveloped poor countries like Afghanistan, Chad, Somalia and Bangladesh. There was no single and exhaustive classification of countries around the world. Most often they are classified according to the level of GDP or GNP per capita. But make it wrong. The distribution of income in society can occur in different ways. The same can be said about the food, access to education, health, working conditions, job security and so on, GDP or GNP per capita is not a measurement of technological development of the country, the complexity of the structure of its economy.

This is demonstrated, for example, the presence of the first threesome two monoculture (oil-producing) countries--Saudi Arabia, Kuwait.

This service is composed of three components:

1) life expectancy;

2) level of education;

3) real value average income of residents.

The educational attainment of the population is measured by a combination of two values: a) literacy rate among adults over 15 years (in%) and b) average length (number of years). Literacy rate in the calculation of the General level of education is a factor of 2/3, and the duration of the training-1/3. If there is no data on the average length of education, it is the combined share in the population of students in primary, secondary and higher education. Revised earnings are calculated by a complex program on the basis of per capita GNP, adjusted for PPP and the indicators reflecting the specific allocation of resources in society, in particular the ratio 20% revenue share for the poorest and the richest 20% and the ratio of national indicators with the world "threshold income" for normal living. As a result of the "real" GDP per capita as determined in this way and is used in the calculation of the HDI further, much less than the official original figure. Based on ranks countries on the HDI UN (human development index, united nations) experts divide the world into three groups:

1) countries with high human development;

2) countries with medium levels of human development;

3) countries with low human development.

The top ten countries in the world largest HDI are: Canada, France, Norway, United States, Iceland, Finland, Netherlands, Japan, New Zealand and Sweden. Russia, certified as a country with an average level of development, was 72-th place (between Oman and Venezuela).

In the world economy of the country can be divided into three large groups:

1. industrialized countries;

2. countries with economies in transition;

3. developing countries.

United States, Japan, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada,China, India, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Thailand industrialized countries (industrial countries), or the developed Western countries-24 industrialized countries in North America, Europe and the Pacific rim with higher income. Leading role in the Group of industrial countries are States of the so-called "group of seven (G-7, or group)-United States, Canada, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, United Kingdom. Five of these States form the core of NATO, four of the six are the backbone of the EU. They formed three competing "Center force" of the world economy-North American, Japanese and Western European, which involve in its orbit and the other nations of the world.

Industrialized countries, with only 16% of the world population, 53 per cent of world GDP and 47 per cent of world industrial output (1997). They provide more than 70 per cent of world exports. It owns more than 90% of the accumulated value of foreign direct investment, here are the headquarters of the largest transnational corporations (TNCs) in the world. Standard of living in the developed capitalist countries is much higher than the global average, and their supremacy on this indicator on the least developed countries of the world is a gigantic amount (more than 60 times the market rate of exchange rates and more than 15 times PPP).

Developing countries (developing countries)-more than 130 States in Asia, Africa and Latin America, characterized by low-and middle-income countries. This group of countries is varied. The absolute magnitude of the economy among them stands out the so-called "group of seven" (people's Republic of China, India, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Thailand), and income per capita, a relatively small group of oil-exporting countries and the so-called newly industrializing economies (NIEs). The latter most often include the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong S.A.R.-"four Asian Tigers" or "Dragon"; Malaysia, Thailand, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.

The Asian NIEs (newly industrialized economies), have adopted export-oriented industrialization strategy, carried out an impressive economic leap forward. Among the main factors in their success-high priority to education, high levels of domestic savings, government policies promoting economic growth, focusing on international industrial specialization and cooperation. Asian NIEs largely repeated the Japanese economic model, adapting many of the business practices of Japan. It is no coincidence that economists comparing East Asia with "the flying goose bunch", where Japan played the role of the leader, followed by the NIS. At the same time here is infinitely greater role than in Japan, played foreign TNCs.

Creation of export potential of the Asian NICs was due to release of TNCS beyond national boundaries and active movement from developed countries in the NIS labor, energy-and material-intensive industries, as well as the release of mass consumer products, take their standard resource in developed countries. These countries are particularly attractive for TNCs cheap labour force and potential for more intensive use. Production of a variety of goods, ranging from consumer goods to large-scale integrated circuits, computers, cars, boats and airplanes. The main "calling card" of Asian NICs are the production of consumer electronics and computer industry.

1.2 The essence of economic system and its types

In the last century in the world have operated various types of economic systems: two market system dominated by a market economy, the market economy with free competition (pure capitalism) and modern market economy (capitalism) and two non-market system is the traditional and administrative command.

An economic system is a complex, ordered the collection of all economic relations and economic activities of society moving in certain forms of productive and social relations and social institutions, the aim of which is to satisfy societal needs for wealth and services. Outside of the systemic nature of the economy could be economic relations and institutions implemented economic patterns, not might be a theoretical understanding of economic phenomena and processes.

In an economic system there are many models of economic development of individual countries and regions. "Perfect" economic system is the market. However, as s system it never existed.

The best studied market economy, which is characterized as a system based on private ownership, freedom of choice and competition is based on personal interest, limits the role of government. Command economy describes as a system dominated by public (State) ownership of the means of production, the collective economic decision-making, takes the place of the economic management by government planning. Under a mixed economy means the type of society, synthesizing elements of the first two systems.

The economy of any country operates as an independent, a great system that includes many different types of activities. And each of its link is a component of the system -- can exist only because it receives anything from other links, that is, be with them during the relationship and interdependence.

Views on the evolution of economic systems are different. Consider that the defining trend in the development of systems is the tendency to uniformity, standardization of all its structural elements.

The existence of different economic systems mutually enriches these systems leads to economic growth and the creation of a qualitatively new economic system. Thus, the modern theory of convergence is built on the premise that different economic systems in their own development and, ultimately, will merge and create a new economic system.

The contemporary world is characterized by the existence of different economic systems, originating in a particular historical period, remained unchanged, and constantly evolve. To better understand the phenomenon in society, you must watch it is not one of a people and not one of any age, and consider it in the process of historical development, that is, to understand this phenomenon as being volatile, emerging, certain phases, stages of development.

The traditional system. In economically less developed countries have a traditional economic system. This type of economic system is based on backward technology, wide dissemination of the manual labor, the diversity of the economy mean for the economic system of various forms of economy. Persist in some countries benefits the community form based on the Community farming and natural forms of distribution creation. Small-scale production is of great importance. It is based on private ownership of productive resources and personal labour of their owner.

In the traditional system of small-scale production is represented by numerous peasant and industrial farms that dominate the economy. In a relatively weak comprehensive national enterprise outstanding role in the economies of the countries often plays foreign capital. In society are covered for centuries, traditions and customs, religious cultural values, caste and class divisions, containing socio-economic progress. The key economic challenges have specific features in different ways. For the traditional system is characteristic of such a feature is the active role of the State. Reallocating a large portion of the budget through the national income, the State invested in infrastructure development and provision of social support for the poor.

The distinctive features of the traditional economic system are: extremely primitive technology, primarily associated with the primary processing of natural resources, the predominance of manual labor. All key economic problems are solved in accordance with the customs, rooted in centuries of religious, tribal and caste traditions. Organization and management of economic life are carried out on the basis of a decision of the Council of elders, the feudal chiefs or requirements.

Currently, the traditional economic system has been preserved in some of the most backward countries of Asia and Africa, although its elements are preserved and intermediate levels of development.

Administrative-command system (a centrally-planned) this system prevailed previously in the USSR and Eastern Europe, and many Asian States.

Features of ACE is the public (and in reality - the State) ownership of virtually all economic resources, monopolization and bureaucratization of economy in specific forms of centralized economic planning as the basis of the economic mechanism. The economic mechanism of the ACs (audit committees) has a number of features. It involves, firstly, to directly manage all enterprises from a single centre - the highest echelons of State power that undermines the autonomy of the actors.

Secondly, the State is in full control of the production and distribution of products, which are free-market relationship between individual households. Thirdly, the State apparatus operates economic activities using mainly administrative and regulatory methods, which undermines the material interest in the outcome.

Giant monopoly established in all areas of national economy and supports ministries and departments, in the absence of competition does not care about the introduction of new products and technology. To cause a monopoly of deficiency of economy is characterized by the absence of normal human and material provisions for imbalance. In a decision of the general economic objectives was the ACE of their specific characteristics.

In countries with administrative-command system of the key economic challenges had its own specific features. In accordance with the then dominant ideological lines to determine the amount and structure of products was considered to be too serious and responsible to upload it directly to producers - industrial enterprises, collective and State farms. Therefore, the structure of social needs were determined by central planners. However, since the detailing and anticipate the changing needs of society in a way fundamentally impossible, these bodies were primarily to meet the minimum requirements.

The market system operates and adjusts automatically as a result of individual, decentralized rather than centralized government decisions. The main economic advantage of the market system is the constant stimulation of production efficiency. Economy produces what consumers require, by applying the most effective technology.

The main economic advantage of the market system is the constant stimulation of production efficiency. Economy produces what consumers require, by applying the most effective technology. The market system operates and adjusts automatically as a result of individual, decentralized rather than centralized government decisions.

2. Types of economic systems in the countries of the world

2.1 Description of the administrative command system and its characteristics

Administrative-command system (ACS)-one type of economy at the present stage of human civilization is classified by economists on certain important topics.

All types of economies in the world today can be summed up in three main types: 1. Free-market system, or free market economy.

As an example of an economy is the economy of England in the 19th century. In modern times this type of economy is the economy of a country no longer exists. However, the classic elements of such a system are manifested and acted in any modern industrialized country. The main principle of this type of economy is that of "Laissez faire"-freedom of choice, defined by the interaction of the forces of supply and demand in a competitive market.

2. administrative-command system of the economy.

The essence of this system is the routine administration of the country's economy from the unified Center bureaucracy). An example of this type is the economy of totalitarian regimes, such as the former Soviet Union. Journalists, politicians and writers still called "planned economy", "transition state socialism, socialist economies", "communist economies", "administrative economies."

3. the economy of the mixed type. Features of administrative-command system are public (and in reality State) ownership of virtually all economic resources, monopolization and bureaucratization of economy in specific forms of centralized economic planning as the basis of the economic mechanism.

The economic mechanism of administrative-command system has a number of features. It involves, first, the direct management of all enterprises from a single Center, the highest echelons of State power that undermines the autonomy of the actors. Secondly, the State is in full control of the production and distribution of products, which are free-market relationship between individual households. Thirdly, the State apparatus operates economic activities using mainly administrative and regulatory methods, which undermines the material interest in the outcome.

Command economy system is a way of life in which capital and land are owned by the State, and the allocation of scarce resources is carried out on the instructions of the Central Government and in accordance with the plans.

When excessive centralization of executive power develops bureaucratization of the economic mechanism and economic ties. By its nature the bureaucratic centralism is unable to increase the efficiency of business operations. It is first of all that the total economy is unprecedented in scale monopolization of production and marketing. Giant monopoly established in all areas of national economy and supports ministries and departments, in the absence of competition does not care about the introduction of new products and technology. For economy by establishing the deficiency is characterized by the absence of normal human and material provisions for violations of the balance of the national economy.

In countries with administrative-command system to general economic objectives had its own specific features. In accordance with the then dominant ideological lines to determine the amount and structure of products was considered to be too serious and responsible to pass it by the direct producers of industrial enterprises, collective and State farms.

Therefore, the structure of social needs defined directly by central planners. However, since the detailing and anticipate the changing needs of society in a way fundamentally impossible, these bodies were primarily to meet the minimum requirements.

Administrative-command system of the economy uses mainly two kinds of coordination: bureaucratic and aggressive; the tend to give rise to a deficit and unrestricted demand. Offices in such a system, trying to mimic the market. But the simulation market is different from the main feature: dependence of consumer agencies rather than the seller from the buyer, from the ratio of supply and demand, as it is manifested in a competitive market.

In countries with administrative-command system of the key economic challenges had its own specific features. In accordance with the then dominant ideological lines to determine the amount and structure of products was considered to be too serious and responsible to upload it directly to producers - industrial enterprises, collective and State farms. Therefore, the structure of social needs were determined by central planners. However, since the detailing and anticipate the changing needs of society in a way fundamentally impossible, these bodies were primarily to meet the minimum requirements.

Centralized distribution of material goods, labor and financial resources is carried out without the participation of the immediate producers so consumers. It took place in accordance with preselected as "public" objectives and criteria, based on central planning. A large proportion of resources in accordance with the then dominant ideological attitudes directed to development of the military-industrial complex.

Distribution of the products between the parties of production strictly regulating the central authorities through universally applicable tariff system, as well as centrally approved means payroll. This led to the predominance of the one-size-fits-all approach to pay.

Viability of the system, its insensitivity to the achievements of STD and inability to go to the intensive type of economic development have made inevitable the root socio-economic transformations in almost all Socialist (Communist) countries. The strategy of economic reforms in these countries is determined by the laws of the development of world civilization, with greater or lesser speed there is a modern market economy.

In accordance with the dominant ideological lines to determine the amount and structure of products was considered to be too serious and responsible, that would be a decision by the direct producers-industrial enterprises, collective and State farms. Centralized distribution of material goods, labor and financial resources is carried out without the direct producers and consumers, in accordance with preselected as '' public '' objectives and criteria, based on central planning.

A large proportion of resources in line with the dominant ideological attitudes directed to development of the military-industrial complex. Distribution of the products between the parties governed the central organs production strictly according to the universally applicable tariff system, as well as centrally approved standards in payroll. This led to the predominance of the one-size-fits-all approach to wage a distinctive feature of the product distribution in the ACU was privileged party-state elite.

2.2 Estimation of the market system and its implementation by the countries of the world

The market system is a way of organizing economic life in which capital and land are privately owned, and the allocation of resources, production, Exchange and consumption of goods and services carried out on the basis of supply and demand. The market economy is based on the principles of free enterprise and choice.

The system consists of the right to private property, private economic initiative, the market organization for resource allocation.

Create exactly the benefits required by the society, is exercised by the markets, each of which bought and sold the benefits and resources of a certain type (there are land market, capital market, labor market, markets for goods and services that are directly consumed by humans).

The market determines the level of success of a business initiative, generates the income that the property brings to their owners, dictates the ratio distribution of scarce resources among alternative areas for their use.

The well-being of everyone in the market system is determined by how well he can sell goods in the market owned by: its workforce, skills, own products, land, the ability to conduct business. The one who will offer customers the best product and on better terms, paves the way to increase their well-being.

The dignity of the market mechanism is that it forces each salesperson to think about for buyers, the seller was seeking their own benefit. But the buyer had to reckon with the interests of the seller, he can get the desired product, only paying for the prevailing market price. Analyzing the mechanism of market balancing the interests of buyers and sellers, an English scientist-Economist Adam Smith wrote in his famous book "a study of the nature and causes of the wealth of Nations (1776):" everyone thinks only of his own benefit, but the invisible hand that guides, as in many other areas, will result, he himself never dreamed of.

Under the "invisible hand" of the market, to market-based economic system, to coordinate the activities of hundreds of millions of people from the time of Adam Smith, economists suggest the price mechanism. It is priced competitively in the market competition, is for all sellers and buyers the main source of information on the ratio of supply and demand.

Markets, based on competition, are the most effective methods known to humanity allocation of limited productive resources and their benefits.

Competitive advantage is that only through the production of best qualities of goods or less costly products, you can win the competition. In the competition for scarce goods customers cost-effective bent on top of those whose own activities is valued particularly highly by the market and better paid, that allows to offer the goods to the highest bidder.

Market system because of its operation also has a number of shortcomings, known in economic theory failures (weaknesses) market.

The main disadvantages of the market system are: a large gap between the incomes of the various sectors of the population, the inability of the system to produce a sufficient quantity of the so called public goods, the potential monopolization of the market, etc.

In such a system, the behavior of each participant is motivated by his personal interests: economic entity seeks to maximize their income on the basis of individual decisions.

The market system functions as a mechanism through which individual decisions and choices are made public and are coordinated. The fact that goods and services are produced and the resources available in a competitive environment means that there is a lot of independently existing buyers and sellers each product and resource. As a result of economic power widely scattered. Decisive economic progress was the freedom of entrepreneurial activity who have capital. There has been a new level of development "human factor", the main productive forces of society.

Worker and capitalist entrepreneur acted as legally equal market agents. The notion of "free employee" implies the buyer's right to freely choose their labor force, i.e. freedom of movement in and of the labor market. Like all, had exercised their goods and receiving the money, the employee should have freedom of choice of subjects and ways of meeting needs.

The downside of freedom of choice has a personal responsibility for maintaining the workforce in good condition, for the correctness of the decision, in compliance with the terms of the employment contract.

What is the mechanism to address the fundamental problems of economic development in the economic system? They are indirectly via price and market. Fluctuation in prices, a higher or lower level serves as an indicator of social needs. Based on the market situation, level and trends in prices, commodity producer to solves the problem of distribution of all types of resources by producing products that are in demand on the market.

Defenders of pure capitalism, argue that this economic system is conducive to the efficient utilization of resources, stability of production and employment, rapid economic growth. That is why there is very little or no need for Government planning in government control and intervention in the economic process.

Whether the market system is the best way to find answers to a set of fundamental questions above? This is also a difficult question: either a full answer would inevitably goes beyond the facts and shall enter into the Kingdom of value judgements. But it follows that scientific answer to this question does not exist. The mere fact that there are many alternative methods of distribution of scarce resources, then there are a lot of different economic systems, provides clear evidence of discrepancies in estimates of the effectiveness of the market system.

Compared to all previous market system has proved to be the most flexible: it can adapt, adapt to changing internal and external conditions. In the course of a long evolution, mostly in the 20th century, the market economy with free competition has evolved into a modern market economy. Its main features are:

1) the diversity in forms of ownership, which is still the leading place belongs to private ownership in its various forms (from labour to a large corporate, individual);

2) deployment of scientific and technological revolution, a strong industrial and social infrastructure;

3) greater impact on the national economy and the social sphere.

In developed market economies undergoing significant change management mechanism. Routine practices are further developed in the framework of individual firms in the form of a marketing management system. At the same time, at the macro-level development planning methods related to State regulation of the economy, up to the implementation of national programmers and plans.

Sustainability emerges as a means of active adaptation to market requirements. As a result, and economic development are key objectives of the new solution. Thus, the size and structure of the product is decided on the basis of marketing research firms, as well as the forecast development needs. Market forecast in advance allows you to reduce the release of long-lived products and move to a qualitatively new models and products. Marketing production management system gives you the capability to advance production lead individual costs of companies producing the bulk of goods of this type, in line with market prices.

The challenge of using resources within major companies through strategic planning. At the same time, the reallocation of resources to the development of innovative industries is largely at the expense of the budget, on the basis of State national and international programs, public incentives for R & D in priority directions of development of scientific and technical progress.

Finally, the task of distribution created by gross domestic product, not only is based on traditional forms, but with an ever greater resources, both large companies and the State to invest in the development of "human factor": financing education systems, including retraining of various skills, improve health services, social spending.

In recent decades in Western countries and most developed countries in other regions of the world all the more pronounced are the contours of the future, replaced by modern capitalism of a post-industrial society. Its characteristic features are:

* changing production and consumption patterns, mainly due to the increasing role of services. For example, in Russia at the beginning of the 90 's. services dominate over goods in the structure of gross domestic product (GDP);

* increase the level of education, particularly through the post-secondary.;

* a new attitude to work, as well as for highly educated workers are creative attitude and high requirements to the interpersonal relationships in the workplace;

* increased focus on the environment, particularly through the transition to sustainable development, that is, restricting the blind use of natural resources;

* humanization (socialization) of the economy, the main focus of investments as well as budget becomes the man himself ("human capital");

* the informatization of society and in the world is steadily increasing the number of producers of knowledge (employed in science and scientific service), distributors (information networks, educational institutions, innovative firms) and consumers (society);

* Renaissance small businesses, primarily due to the rapid updating and high product differentiation;

* globalization of economic activities, for the remarkable number of firms, the world has become a single market, the single market for many firms became their region of the world, for an even larger number of companies exporting and importing products and economic resources is not an episodic, and systematic operation.

3. Post-industrial society as a modern economic system

Beginning theory of post-industrial society refers to the 60-s of the XX century. One of the first to use the term in his writings and lectures of r. Aaron, d. Riesman, d. Bell, w. Rostov, a. Touraine and others. In 1973, the book of d. Bella "the coming post-industrial society", which caused great interest in the subject. By d. Bell, "post-industrial society is a society whose economy makes the transition from preferential priority in the production of goods to the production of services, research, education and quality of life; which class of technicians became the main occupational group and most importantly that innovation. It became increasingly dependent on achievement of theoretical knowledge. Post-industrial society. implies the emergence of a new class, whose representatives at the political level to act as consultants, experts or technocrats "

Proponents of this theory believe that the boundaries separating economic systems from each other, are industrial and scientific-technical revolution. Depending on the degree of industrial and economic development of the society provide three levels of society:

1 do-industrial society;

2 industrial society;

3 post-industrial society.

Pre-industrial subsistence agriculture predominated. The individual could not survive without being in one way or another, linked to the land and to agricultural process. The man was included in the biological cycles of nature, was forced to adapt to them, measured with the biological rhythm of agricultural production.

Place a direct manufacturer and its function in the production process, purpose and means, the quality and quantity of manufactured products were determined not only the level of development of the productive forces, but also specific individuals: a workers ' Association, to which the individual belonged (primitive or peasant community, craft shop, etc.); or representatives of the dominant class, personal relationship, which direct the manufacturer stayed (whether rent collector-tax State, owners or Asian feudal Lord).

Improvement of the artificial, man-made tools certainly has helped to overcome dependency on human nature, creation of conditions for transition from natural productive forces to the public. Development of tools, technology has allowed humans to increase measure power over external nature. Technology acts as a "second nature", like nature, the transformed man.

The industrial revolution liberates the individual from personal dependence comes personal independence. It is evident that the appropriation of the means of production and subsistence are not indirectly in the market economy-based human to any team. Each commodity producer your own risk and determine what and how much to produce, to whom, when and under what conditions to implement their products.

However, this formal personal independence has as its basis the full vesnuы dependence on other producers (and, above all, dependence on the production and consumption of life benefits). Prerequisites for its overcoming in the transition from industrial society to a post-industrial.

In the course of scientific and technical revolution of science becomes a direct productive force, the comprehensive productive forces are the lead element of the productive forces. If after the Neolithic revolution is producing economy was based on agriculture, but the result of the industrial revolution has been the emergence of economy, which was originally a light and, later, heavy industry, the STD is post-industrial economy. The Centre of gravity is transferred to the non-production sector. If in the agrarian economy, a leading element was Earth, and industrial capital, modern-limiting factor becomes information, knowledge.

This leads to significant changes in the sitting of the productive forces. Pre-industrial cities arose at the intersections of trade routes, industrial, near sources of raw materials and energy, technopoles post-industrial era grow up around a research centers and major research laboratories.

Pre-industrial subsistence agriculture predominated. The individual could not survive without being in one way or another, linked to the land, the agricultural process. The land was a compound of the individual worker's body, there was no natural unity labor with its natural prerequisites. The man was included in the biological cycles of nature, was forced to adapt to them, measured with the biological rhythm of agricultural production.

Industrial society. Improvement of the artificial, man-made tools certainly has helped to overcome dependency on human nature, creation of conditions for transition from natural productive forces to the public. Development of tools, technology has allowed humans to increase measure power over external nature. Technology acts as a "second nature", like nature, the transformed man.

The industrial revolution liberates the individual from personal dependence comes personal independence. It is evident that the appropriation of the means of production and subsistence are not indirectly in the market economy-based human to any team. Each commodity producer at your own risk and determine what and how much to produce, to whom, when and under what conditions to implement their products. However, this formal personal independence has as its basis the full dependence on other producers (and, above all, dependence on the production and consumption, life benefits).

Objectification of relations between manufacturers is an embryo disposition, characterizing the various aspects of the situation in a market economy, the rule of the last labor of living labor, product, over the things of man. Prerequisites for overcoming it are in the transition from industrial society to a post-industrial.

Post-industrial society.

In the course of scientific and technical revolution of science becomes a direct productive force, the comprehensive productive forces are the lead element of the productive forces. If after the Neolithic revolution is producing economy was based on agriculture, but the result of the industrial revolution has been the emergence of a postagrarnoj economy, which was originally a light and, later, heavy industry, the STD is post-industrial economy.

The Centre of gravity is transferred to the non-production sector. In the mid-80 's, more than 70 per cent of the population of the United States were working in the services sector. If in the agrarian economy, a leading element was Earth, and industrial capital, the modern is a limiting factor, information becomes knowledge.

New technologies are the result of labor is no longer "talented tinkers" and "vysokolobyh intellectuals". The outcome of their activities - the revolution in telecommunications. If vH1H is the first half of the 20th century, the main form of communication were newspapers, magazines, books, then added telephone, Telegraph, radio and television, all of them are being replaced by means of computer-mediated communication. Knowledge and information are becoming strategic resources. This leads primarily to significant changes in the sitting of the productive forces.

In the city arose at the intersections of trade routes, industrial, near sources of raw materials and energy, techno poles post-industrial era grow up around a research centers and major research laboratories (Silicon Valley in the United States). In developed countries is narrowing of the material production, while the rapid growth of the industry knowledge. "

Thus, the foundations of the future society are not only and not so much in material Agey, but, according to Marx, on the other side of material production.

Scientific-technical revolution paves the way for the development of free individuality. They mark a stage characterized by personal relationships and dependencies, and according to acting as a negation of negation. Relations of personal dependency existed under the rule of the natural productive forces. They described this stage of human development, where the individual can develop only in a limited, local community, from which it depended.

Relations of personal independence, rule-based, signified a level of development when under the influence of the social division of labor is the separation of producers, and they are no longer in need of some form of naturally present or historical condition of collectivity, develop its scope. However, with the advent of World Affairs and universal needs develops a comprehensive process of objectification of the relations of production, alienating the quintessence of forces of the employee, turning them into an alien, dominant over him.

Free personality mark phase harmonious unity of man and nature, self-control of humanity and its social forces, the intellectual progress of human civilization. Identity is as an end in itself of human development. At the same time, the identity is the main instrument of progress. Choosing the target, its achievements, as well as the direct labor process in post-industrial societies are not technological and humanitarian challenge. This leads to a high degree of autonomy of every individual, gives labor a truly free creative content. Now obviously the main markets: how has the corresponding type of person -- the "homo economics", and the post-industrial society would be consistent with its own form of sociality is a free personality.

Post-industrial society-modern stage of socio-economic development, which entered the industrialized countries of the West and Japan in the last quarter of the 20th century Post-industrial the society has many other names:, "information society, society", "tehnotronnoe society", "scientific civilization" etc.

Post-industrialism-a new, higher stage of development compared to the stage of industrial society, which would come in its place. The main feature of the post-industrial society is the emergence of computer technological way of production, characterized by the production of wealth primarily through "knowledge and information". His Foundation is knowledge-intensive and resource-saving, the so-called high technology.

These include microelectronics, telecommunications, robotics, materials with predefined properties, biotechnology, etc. Information permeates all aspects of society: not only the production of goods and services, but also household, as well as culture and art.

Another important feature of the post-industrial society, strengthening the role and value of the human factor. Changing structure of labour resources: the share of physical and mental labor is increasing the share of high-quality. Increasing investment in human capital: education and training, skills upgrading and retraining of workers. The post-industrial phase has a tendency to increase diversity and individualization of needs and demand.

In the structure of personal consumption is increasing the proportion of non-material needs, humanitarian nature: social, intellectual, and cultural. Departure from standardization, improve the quality of life lead to shifts in production. The role of small industries. The number of modifications to the same product or service. Relatively and absolutely growing sphere of production of intangible wealth and services.

Is in the process of integration of socio-economic development. There is a new type of relationship between man and nature, in which the man is not as a conqueror, not as unthinking consumer benefits, as well as an organic part of the man-nature-society ". Post-industrial society, although it continued the forward solution of many critical problems industrialism, has not been able to overcome some of its contradictions (persistently high unemployment, demographic problems associated with ageing populations and increasing pressure on the working-age population, etc.).

It raises and new contradictions caused by expansion of mass manipulation, brainwashing him imposing false stereotypes and the emergence of new forms of computer-related crime.

Conclusions

In the ancient world, people were gathering and hunting, using the products of their labor to meet own needs only. This organization is society, since there was no market exchange.

The Exchange started the first economic era - agrarian economy where people exchanged material products produced using manual labor.

With the advent of factories and further invention and proliferation of machines, have begun the industrial age, which was used to power machinery. The main achievements of this time-division of labor, pipeline, mass production (approximately from mid-18th to mid-20th century).

Unfortunately, the man is currently the only tool to create and deploy into production innovation. With the advent of "artificial intelligence", you can expect the, when there would be no need to make decisions at a time of limited resources, and this task will be able to deal with the beginning of the 21st century some scholars link the offensive creative economy in which information processing would be transferred onto computers, and the person will remain as the creator of the innovation. This is the so-called "fourth wave".

Economic life of mankind can be arranged in different ways. These differences manifest themselves in the most economic decision making methods and the type of ownership of the main types of resources. Humanity knows four types of economic systems: traditional market, command and mixed.

The market system, the system assumes that the device of the economic life of society, in which all economic resources are privately owned, and all decisions are made in the relevant markets. These markets are not restricted or regulated.




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