Features of syntactic structures in sports journalism (on the basis of the newspapers "Sport-express" and "Izvestia")

Syntactic structures in the media. Characteristic features of language media. Construction of expressive syntax. Syntactic structures in the newspaper "Sport Express" and "Izvestia". Review features of sports journalism and thematic range of syntax.

Рубрика Иностранные языки и языкознание
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 30.09.2011

course work




Chapter I. Syntactic structures in media

1.1 Features of language media

1.2 Construction of expressive syntax

1.3 Colloquial syntax

Chapter II. Syntactic structures in the newspapers "Sport-Express" and "Izvestia"

2.1 Features of sports journalism

2.2 The thematic range of syntactic constructions




This work investigates how syntactic structures used in the specialized sports media differ from syntactic structures used in the sports materials in the unspecialized social and political media.

The urgency of the work:

There are two types of expression sports information in the press. First, there is the specialized sports media (the largest Russian media are the newspaper Sport-Express" and "Soviet Sport"). In addition, the sports information appears daily on the pages of the socio-political mass media. But these two types are very different. Generally in the socio-political newspapers sports information is not a priority. It can be read by the consumer "in between times". Therefore, the materials haven't so many details. They have less specific terminology, information is more concise and capacious. But most of the studies of language media analyze the lexical features of journalistic style. While the syntactic level remains unexplored area. Is particularly interesting to consider the syntax in the language of sports journalism, that is often called corporate language because of its specificity.

The object of the work - materials in the sports newspaper Sport-Express " and in the daily socio-political newspaper Izvestia in 2011.

The subject of the work - functioning of syntactic constructions in the specialized sports media and in the sports materials in non-specialized media.

The purpose of the work is to consider the peculiarities of syntax in modern media and analyze the differences of syntactic structures in the specialized sports media and sports materials in the unspecialized socio-political mass media (on the basis of the newspapers "Sport-Express" and "Izvestia").


1.1 Features of language media

Scientists, who study language media (E. Kostomarov, M. Krongauz, G. Solganik), isolated the Soviet and post-Soviet periods of newspaper language. The first is traditionally referred to as totalitarian, ideological and politicized. It is characterized by strict normalization, dry, official speeches, templates. During the adjustment period, researchers mark the beginning of changing the language media. The major features include:

1) The process of democratization (On the pages of newspapers appear colloquial words, slang);

2) Widespread adoption;

3) penetration of the elements of spoken language in written language;

4) increased expressiveness, evaluation, emotional language;

5) the tendency to save effort of speech;

6) strengthening the role of authorial 'I '.

However, in most studies these trends are explored at the lexical level. Features of syntax are still largely unexplored area, although at the syntactic level these trends are also affected. Expressive syntax and colloquial syntax are the main components in a modern journalistic text [Солганик 2004, 3-6].

syntax media language journalism

1.2 Construction of expressive syntax

One of the main ways to create expression are syntactic stylistic figures of speech, which give the text the imagery and brightness. Syntactical figures of speech "are formed by constructing a special stylistic phrases, sentences or groups of proposals in the text" [Лагута 1999, 54].

Rhetorical exclamations convey various emotions of the author: surprise, delight, disappointment, joy, etc. The rhetorical exclamation is usually a sentence that ends with an exclamation mark (What a summer!).

Rhetorical question is a figure of speech in the form of a question posed for its persuasive effect without the expectation of a reply.[1] Rhetorical questions encourage the listener to think about what the (often obvious) answer to the question must be. When a speaker states, "How much longer must our people endure this injustice?", no formal answer is expected. Rather, it is a device used by the speaker to assert or deny something.

Syntactically identically constructed sections of speech are named syntactic parallelism. It may increase effect of the rhetorical questions and exclamations. If you want faith - forget about the knowledge and if you want skills - forget about faith ("Science and Life") [Синьи 2004, 7-10].

Elliptical construction refers to the omission from a clause of one or more words that would otherwise be required by the remaining elements. Jessica had five dollars; Monica, three. (The verb "had" was omitted at the comma). What if I miss the deadline? (The verb phrase "will happen" was omitted, as in "What will happen if I miss the deadline"). Fire when ready. (In the sentence, "you are" is understood, as in "Fire when you are ready.")

A climax is a figure of speech in which words, phrases, or clauses are arranged in order of increasing importance. Buying a burning tour, do not expect that the ticket that costs $ 2000 will get you in just a couple of hundred. The cost of burning tour must be at a discount of 30%, at least - at 50% and never at 80% ("Moskovsky Komsomolets") [Голуб 2003, 426-432].

Polysyndeton is the use of several conjunctions in close succession, especially where some might be omitted (as in "he ran and jumped and laughed for joy"). It is a stylistic scheme used to achieve a variety of effects: it can increase the rhythm of prose, speed or slow its pace, convey solemnity or even ecstasy and childlike exuberance. I said, 'Who killed him?' and he said 'I don't know who killed him, but he's dead all right,' and it was dark and there was water standing in the street and no lights or windows broke and boats all up in the town and trees blown down and everything all blown and I got a skiff and went out and found my boat where I had her inside Mango Key and she was right only she was full of water. (Ernest Hemingway, After the Storm) [Веккессер 2006, 190-193].

Insertions (the words, combinations of words, sentences) contain additional information, comments, clarifications, explanations, amendments to the principal statements. Insertions are an optional part of the proposal, which contains additional information. Without insertions the sentence is still full structurally and semantically. Semantic autonomy of insertions explains the need to use for their selection brackets or dashes.

Minimum insertions are interrogative and exclamation marks, which are used in journalistic style. Punctuations, enclosed in brackets, are notable for estimates. Most often, thus expresses surprise or disagreement: In the Pilnyak's article easy to see rapid expansion of literature at the expense of insufficiently known (?) way of life of the revolutionary years.

Parcelling - the structure of expressive syntax, deliberate dismemberment of the associated text into several independent segments. Jeans, a tweed jacket and a nice shirt. Very good. My favorite! White. A plain white shirt. But the favorite. I put it ... and went to meet Max (Grishkovec).

Nominative sentence is a prime verbless proposal with the main member, expressed the nominative of the noun. Nominative sentences have image features. Nominative sentences function as symbols of place and time of action (often - in plays and nonfiction texts): Decoration of the first act. Eight o'clock. Call. Nominative sentences can perform expressive function. Isolation of the vivid details, concise and imaginative description, imprint pictures of what is happening are also the functions of nominative sentences [Козлова 2008, 138-142].

1.3 Colloquial syntax

Conversational style is characterized by ease, spontaneity, informality and expressivity. In the last decade, elements of conversational style are included in a written speech.

N. Shvedova classifies the most frequency structures of colloquial syntax:

1) design with specific conversational modal particles, colloquial particles;

2) interrogative constructions (And what, if not a bar, they do it? - "BM") and question-answer Unity (Is it about money - the matter is of human conscience - "BM");

3) designs with interjection "well". Well, why all of our large and small policies can not sit down at one very large table ("AIF")

Conversational speech characterized by a high variability of word order. Usually, the main information is communicated at the beginning of the utterance. While in a written speech at the direct order of words in the first place is the theme and rheme - the second.

Inversion inherent in everyday speech, as an element of spontaneity, lack of training, there is also in a language of the newspapers [Шведова 1964, 3?18].


2.1 Features of sports journalism

In order to identify examples of syntactic constructions in the sports press, we have analyzed the issues of the newspaper Izvestia and the newspaper "Sport Express" for the period from February 1 to April 25, 2011. Socio-political newspaper "Izvestia" published 5 times a week (except Saturday and Sunday) with a volume of 12 to 48 pages, format - A2. Circulation in Russia is about 150 thousand copies. Circulation in Moscow, has about 50 thousand copies. The thematic range of newspapers included coverage of events in Russia and abroad, analysis and commentary, review of business and economics, cultural events and sports life.

Sports newspaper "Sport-Express" is published 6 times a week (except Sunday) in 32 cities around the world. Daily circulation is about 1.2 million copies, in Moscow and St. Petersburg is about 200 thousand, format - A2. The main themes - coverage of football and hockey events. The next priority themes are biathlon, volleyball, basketball, tennis, boxing.

Based on the quantitative analysis provided in the table, it is clear that in the newspaper "Sport Express" more types of syntactic structures are presented. While in the newspaper "Izvestia" ellipse, polisindeton, nominative representation are not represented.

In the newspaper Izvestia the most frequent syntactic structures are insertions (40%) and rhetorical questions (19%). Further, it should be noted question-answer structures (6%), parceling (6%), syntactic parallelism (5%), the connecting constructions (5%) and incomplete sentences (4%). constructions with homogeneous members of the proposals (3%) and rhetorical exclamations, a series of rhetorical questions, graduations, nominative sentences, structures with spoken modal particles (2%), as well as constructions with interjection "well" and the introductory word "mole" (1%) are used less often.

In the newspaper "Sport Express" insertions (24%), rhetorical questions (13%), and parcelling (13%) and rhetorical ejaculations (11%) are often used. Then follow series of rhetorical questions (6%), question-answer constructions (5%), constructions with syntactic parallelism (5%), constructions with homogeneous members of the proposals (4%). At the same time, there are almost no constructions with spoken modal particles (3%), connecting constructions, ellipsis, polisindeton, nominative constructions representation, constructions with interjection "well" and the introductory word "mole" (2%), graduation and nominative sentences (1%).

Type of syntactic constructions



Frequency of use (%) / Examples

Frequency of use (%) / Examples

Rhetorical exclamations

2 %

11 %

How many copies have been broken before the post was appointed Guus Hiddink!

And finally in Russia will reduce the hockey site!

rhetorical questions

19 %

13 %

So why doesn't hang up costs on the receiving side?

What will it be in the Luzhniki Stadium tomorrow?

question-answer constructions

6 %

5 %

What should happen to Karpin was fired from the top? Obviously, only the departure of the club in first division.

Will help the "family wall" Russian skaters? It is not excluded that, yes.

series of rhetorical questions

2 %

6 %

What will be then? Will we have to carry the first tour somewhere in Turkey or the Emirates? Or will we lay everywhere artificial turf?

What does it mean - a sports score? Need to evaluate whether observed principles fair play during the beating? Or exhibit, as in boxing, the estimate for the quality and force of the blows?

syntactic parallelism

5 %

5 %

In the ring plain vanity reigned: coaches were indicating, support groups were blaring, the judges were conferring.

Gullit happy, Karpin upset

connecting constructions

5 %

2 %

Lokomotiv perceptively changed coaches during the season and held a point selection, but forgot to strengthen the goalkeeper line - and it has become the Achilles heel of the team in the playoffs.

Seemed a smoker who gave up the habit - just a box.


6 %

13 %

At the helm of the capital's club continues to be Valery Karpin, who stayed in retirement just two days. And even then only on paper.

Pashutin proved that it is not. Working.



2 %

There are many reasons: and the interests of television and increased transportation costs, and of course, the lockout, which every day seems more and more inevitable.


40 %

24 %

True, in the final stage of the series - Czech hockey games - it finished only second.

A long time we all know: the Russian team can not play friendly matches (though its hard forced to do so).

nominative sentences

2 %

1 %

10 am. Easy unshaven, a thin coat, an elegant gray scarf - coach like descended from glossy magazine covers. Almost every important element - a defect

Ability not to bend under the blows of fate. Ability to vary depending on the circumstances - to achieve a higher goal.

constructions with interjection "well"

1 %

2 %

Well, just music fell silent, the coach allowed himself to smile.

As a result, well, of course, the match with Slovenes "lost Arshavin"

2.2 The thematic range of syntactic constructions

Most of the materials, that include in our work, refer to the football theme. This could be explained by the fact that in the newspaper "Sport Express" football is a priority theme. However, during the study materials of the newspaper "Sport-Express" were secondary to the newspaper "Izvestia". "Izvestia" tends to a uniform coverage of sports: in a issue it is almost impossible to find two publications about one kind of sport. Therefore, we may say that the presentation of information about football is full of more expressive and conversational syntax. In second place there are materials about hockey. Then follow figure skating, Formula 1, basketball, tennis, boxing, curling.

Football - 60% Hockey - 13% Figure Skating - 6% Basketball - 6% "Formula 1"- 6% Tennis - 3% boxing - 3% Curling - 3%


Thus, the results of the study show that the language of the specialized sports media is more expressive, especially at the syntactic level. This is evidenced by the following characteristics:

1) Syntax figures, presented in the materials of the specialized sports media, more diverse and more frequency than in the sports publications in the unspecialized media. So, the sports press includes syntactic figures of speech (rhetorical exclamations, rhetorical questions, question-answer structure, syntactic parallelism, ellipsis, graduations, polisindeton), false construction, segmented sentences, nominative sentences, as well as elements of conversational syntax, presented designs with particles, interjection well. In the newspaper Izvestia, that is social and political editions, ellipse, polisindeton are not represented, while the other designs are used in smaller quantities.

2) Increased expressivity of language sports press is achieved by using series of rhetorical questions and imposing syntactical figures of speech. In language of the non-specialized media such techniques are absent.

3) Specialized Sport editions are notable for titles of expressive character, which is achieved using expressive syntax (parcelling, nominative presentation, ellipse, rhetorical exclamations, questions and addresses, etc.). While in the socio-political newspapers news headlines dominate.

4) in the unspecialized sports media expressive function of the syntactic structures may have secondary character. The main role can have structure-forming function, explanatory, informative etc.

As a result we have shown that, speaking about sports journalism, it is necessary to distinguish between journalism in the specialized sports media and non-specialized media, not only on the basis of differences in lexical and semantic level, but also because of syntax differences.


1. Веккессер, М. В. Функционирование стилистической фигуры полисиндетона в современном русском языке / М. В. Веккессер // Вестник КрасГУ серия "Гуманитарные науки". - 2006. - № 3/2. - С. 190-193.

2. Голуб, И. Б. Стилистика русского языка / И. Б. Голуб. - М.: Айрис-пресс, 2003. - 448 с.

3. Козлова, А. Н. Роль вставных конструкций в газетных статьях жанра журналистского расследования / А. Н. Козлова // Информационное поле современной России: практики и эффекты: Материалы Шестой Международной научно-практической конференции / Отв. ред. В.З. Гарифуллин. - Казань: Изд-во Казан. гос. ун-та, 2009. - С. 138-143.

4. Лагута, О. Н. Учебный словарь стилистических терминов / О. Н. Лагута. - Новосибирск: НГУ, 2000. - 64 с.

5. Синьи, В. Фигуры речи как реализация параллелизма и их значение в публицистике / Ван Синьи // Журналистика и культура русской речи. - 2004. - № 1. - С. 7-10.

6. Солганик, Г. Я. Язык современных СМИ / Г. Я. Солганик // Журналистика и культура русской речи. - 2004. - № 1. - С. 3-6.

7. Шведова, Н. Ю. О некоторых активных процессах в современном русском синтаксисе / Н. Ю. Шведова // Вопр. языкознания. - 1964. - № 2. - С. 3-18.

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