Legal linguistics as a branch of linguistic science and academic disciplines. Aspects of language and human interaction. Basic components of legal linguistics. Factors that are relevant in terms of language policy. Problems of linguistic research.
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1. Legal linguistics as a branch of linguistic science and academic disciplines
The concept of continuous postgraduate education involves on the one hand, deepening the knowledge oderzhuvalysya while studying at university, on the other - to achieve a fundamentally new level of education, namely the combination of information from several sciences. The course "Legal medicine" is the applied sciences, which, based on the "Business Ukrainian language" allows you to integrate knowledge from linguistics, theory of law, constitutional law, criminology, etc.. Thus, the purpose of discipline - to give systematic knowledge of legislative regulation of the functioning of different languages and variants of one language, means the language used to create the legal texts, the Ukrainian legal terminology and more.
The subject of study Legal Linguistics is language that functions in the areas of law enforcement, judiciary, notary, legal documentation, legal science and education, legal information and legal journalism. It defines the function and specificity of language rights, its main types and genres, creating a system of rules and interpretation of legal texts.
The task of legal linguistics: 1) the study of legal language on the historical perspective, 2) provision of legal practice with special linguistic knowledge, and 3) development of linguistic principles of expertise extralegal texts, and 4) ensure the linguistic expertise of draft laws, decrees, regulations, etc., 5) normalization terminology language of legal science, 6) improving the culture of broadcasting employees of juridical institutions and others.
2. Aspects of language and human interaction
Two aspects of the study and description of the Ukrainian language in the legal and legislative area of modern Ukraine, reflecting the relationship and interplay of language and law:
The first aspect (yuryslinhvistyka - serves the right language) study law (legislative, legal) problems of language, its functioning and development in various areas of communication. Yurydyzatsiya language has different manifestations:
1) yurydyzatsiya as acquiring legal status of languages, primarily becoming a state in the Ukrainian language, etc.;
2) linguistic phenomena are subject to pre-trial or trial (expertise) in cases where such phenomena fall into the area of jurisdiction of certain laws and their legal needs assessment. For example, linguistic expertise extralegal texts:
1) avtoroznavcha examination (Sholokhov);
2) hrafolohichna examination;
3) examination of disputed texts in order to establish violations of the rights of one person by another (insulting the dignity of honor.);
3) elements of the language within the scope of legal language as specialized terminological, which is a special pidstyl Ukrainian. Stages yurydyzatsiyi language: 1) the official correspondence of ordinary citizens, 2) "transfer" ordinary speech of citizens to legal language while logging 3) the occurrence of elements of language in legal texts of various types, and 4) terminologization varying degrees.
The second aspect (linhvoyurystyka) is associated with how it serves the right, being part of it:
1) Ukrainian language is a system of legal techniques, ie techniques of legal texts. Typical errors linhvoyurydychnyh norms of the language law (language and speech errors in the design of legislation, etc., semantic vagueness of definitions, imprecision and ambiguity of language, etc.).. Current need for systemic administration linhvoyurydychnoyi examination of all types of legislative acts in the following stages: during their assembly, during the adoption of appropriate legislative or executive power during the implementation, including conflicts between subjects and objects of similar cases and proceedings in the courts of different instances;
2) linguistics is part zakonozastosuvalnoyi equipment associated with the culture of broadcasting lawyer rhetorical technique;
3) legal hermeneutics - the interpretation of formal legal texts from a linguistic point of view.
3. Basic components of legal linguistics
Clearly, there is no need to give future lawyers that linguistic knowledge provided to students-philologists. But seems to fit the new programs reflect the following aspects:
1. Sociolinguistic component.
Sociolinguistics - a branch of linguistics that studies language in conjunction with the social conditions of its existence.
Sociolinguistic component of submarine studies: language as a social phenomenon; function of language specific features of legal language, place of language in general complex of human rights, social conditions, scope and functioning of the language environment, literary language and social dialects, the legal principles of functioning of languages in Ukraine, etc. other.
One of the first recorded observations in writing, which shows the necessity of language in the context of its functioning in society, from the 17th century. and belongs to the teacher Salamankskoho University in Spain Gonzalo de Korreasu: "It should be noted that the language has also dialects common in the provinces, some variations related to age, position and property of residents of provinces there is a language of rural inhabitants, commoners, burghers, noble nobles and courtiers, historians, elders, preachers, women, men and even little children. " The term "C" first applied in 1952 an American sociologist Herman Curry.
One of the key concepts of C language situation is - a combination of forms of existence of language that serves the continuum of communication in a certain ethnic community or administrative-territorial association.
Types of language situations:
1) endohlosni - there are several subsystems one language (territorial dialects sociolect);
2) ekzohlosni - a set of several spoken languages in the society;
Parameters characteristic of the language situation:
1) the degree riznomovnosti in the region;
2) the degree of genetic closeness of languages, operating in the region;
3) the proportion of speakers who use different languages;
4) the presence or absence of standardization and normalization;
5) assessment of the situation by speaking in different categories.
Language policy - a deliberate and purposeful management of public language activities and impact on everyday speech to his improvement as an essential means of communication and culture of the poorest people.
Factors that are relevant in terms of language policy:
1) normative and stylistic differentiation of literary language;
2) vzirtsevist language print and electronic media, government documents, parliamentary speeches, speeches of leading politicians;
3) improve the language of culture in middle and high school;
4) a systematic and planned promotion of linguistic knowledge in print, on radio, television;
5) (for multi-country) taking into account issues of multilingualism, state and official languages, taking into account the linguistic rights of ethnic minorities;
6) creating public and governmental organizations, designed to monitor and adjust the state language policy, introduction of the "language police" (in France).
The functioning of languages in Ukraine is regulated by a number of regulations and departmental documents, whose contents are often contradictory:
1) the Constitution of Ukraine;
2) Law of Ukraine "On Languages in Ukrainian SSR" from 28.10.1998;
3) The decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine concerning official interpretation of Article 10 of the Constitution of Ukraine of 14.12.1999 № 10-rp/99;
4) international instruments defining features of the functioning of languages in various spheres of existence of society and ratified by Ukraine (European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages on 05.11.1992, ratified the Law of 15 May 2003; Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities of 1 February 1995, ratified by Ukraine on December 9, 1997, an Agreement on issues related to the restoration of the rights of deported persons, national minorities and peoples, signed on October 9, 1992 representatives of the Commonwealth of Independent States in Bishkek and ratified by Ukraine on December 17, 1993; Convention on the rights of persons belonging to national minorities, signed October 21, 1994 in Moscow by the Commonwealth of Independent States with the participation of Ukraine);
5) departmental documents.
The official language - the language, tradition or fixed by law, the use of which is required in public administration and spravochynstva, civic bodies and organizations, enterprises, public institutions in education, science and culture in the areas of Communications and Informatics.
About half the countries in the world have official languages. In some (eg, Albania, France, Germany and Lithuania) is the only official language. In some - they are few (eg, Belarus, Belgium, Canada, Finland, Afghanistan, Paraguay, Bolivia, India, Switzerland).
In some countries (Iraq, Italy, Spain, Russia) is an official language for all official languages of the country and for individual regions (eg, Tatar language in Tatarstan). Some countries, such as the United States have no national language for the whole country, but have the following for their specific regions, such as states in the U.S.. Finally, in some countries the concept of national language altogether absent, for example in Australia, Luxembourg and Sweden.
Some countries (African countries) as a legacy of colonial past remain the official language and language learning (eg, French or English) that are not national languages of the population or at least the languages spoken by the majority population. By contrast, the nationalist tendencies in Ireland led to the fact that the Irish language which says the minority population is the national language and the first official language of this country. English language which communicates most people named in the Constitution of Ireland only as a second language.
Do not confuse the state language and officially recognized minority languages, which can be conducted and training that can be used in spravochynstvi. Many contradictions concerning distinction between "official language" and "official language" have in Ukraine. Yes, with one hand, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine № 10-rp/99 decision of 14 December 1999 identified these concepts: "Under the state (official) language means the language which the state granted the legal status of mandatory means of communication in the public spheres of social life ". On the other hand - in accordance with paragraph 2 of the Law of Ukraine "On ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages" № 802-IV of 15.05.2003  "provision of the Charter applied to the languages of national minorities of Ukraine: Byelorussian, Bulgarian, Gagauz, Greek, Jewish, Crimean Tatar, Moldavian, German, Polish, Russian, Romanian, Slovak and Hungarian. " These languages allowed documents and testimony in civil cases and cases of administrative violations, and if necessary assisted by an interpreter. In criminal cases, not allowed to appeal the refusal to accept evidence or citizens on the sole ground that they contained language regional or minority language. Local or regional authorities are obliged to allow and / or encourage the publication of official documents, other than the state language, regional language or minority language. They may use the language in the debate in the sessions of their representative bodies, which does not exclude the possibility of such cases in the state language.
The object of research documentary linguistics as part of a transmission line:
1. Features officially-business style of language.
2. Language laws and regulations in terms of compliance with language and speech.
3. Legal-linguistic interpretation (hermeneutics): the concept of linguistic interpretation of legislative texts and regulations; division systematic, historical, and linguistic methods of target interpretation of the content of legal norms, specific processes of perception at work with legal texts.
4. Linguistic examination of draft laws and regulations.
Object of study as part of PL: Language skills of human normal and disease; speech in an altered state of consciousness, the ratio of linguistic and legal persons behavior, verbal means of influence on people and groups of people in situations that may have legal consequences, truth and falsehood in a verbal picture of the world.
Forensic Examination - an independent procedural form a new and refinement (check) the available evidence.
Taking into account: speaking of man as a source of information about it, the general concept and avtoroznavchoyi phonoscopic expertise, linguistic requirements for the preparation of materials for examination, the possibility of applying linguistic knowledge to identify and diagnose a person for her speech.
The international ekspertolohiyi (by Elena I. Halyashynoyu):
1) identification and diagnosis of the individual speaker, regardless of the context and the language recorded soundtrack of speech;
2) automate the authentication of speech works fixed in phonograms;
3) restoration and filtering of speech signals, which are subjected to distortion and masking noise and other interference (including music, voice);
4) significant stability test of verbal and acoustic information to the hardware or deliberate distortion of speech signal;
5) authorization of written text;
6) automation of procedures for attribution (accuracy, authenticity) of text and identify the author in writing-speech work;
7) diagnosis by speech-writing work;
8) verification of legal translation of written and oral work.
Types of offenses, the specificity of which is that they are committed through the use of verbal activity: offending the honor, dignity, business reputation, insult, slander, calls for the violent change of constitutional order, threats and extortion, with known false information about terrorist acts, etc
2. The main types of examinations which are conducted in peer institutions are: 2.1. Forensic: handwriting; avtoroznavcha; technical examination of documents. (Instructions on the appointment and conduct forensic examinations approved by the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine of 08.10.98 N 53 / 5)
Scientific and methodical recommendations on preparation and purpose of forensic examination
1. The main task of the expert handwriting analysis is to identify artist handwriting, digital records (hereinafter - the manuscript) and signature. This expertise solved and some neidentyfikatsiyni tasks (establishing the fact of the manuscript in circumstances or condition in an unusual artist, deliberately altered handwriting of imitation (imitation) handwriting of another person, determine the sex of the performer, and his affiliation to a group by age). An indicative list of issues solved whether the manuscript of a particular person? Have made several manuscripts by one person? Not done intentionally altered manuscript handwriting? Have not completed the manuscript in circumstances? Is not there was a person who completed the manuscript, in an unusual position? Do not have a person who completed the manuscript, writing skills with special fonts? Similar questions can be settled and signatures on the performers. Of which completed the manuscript of sex? To what age group is singer manuscript? Avtoroznavcha examination 17. The main objective avtoroznavchoyi examination is to identify the author's text. Avtoroznavchoyu expertise can also be set (most likely in the form of) some socio-biographical characteristics of the author's text (his native language, education level, ownership of the scientific, business or other functional style languages, etc.).. An indicative list of issues solved Is an individual author of the text? Is there a particular person is the author of several different texts? Is the text are indications of socio-biographical characteristics of its author? If there is, which ones?
The task of forensic linguistic research:
- Identification (differentiation) of the document;
- Identification or differentiation of the author and artist text;
- Determination of socio-demographic portrait of the author anonymous or psevdonimnoho document (establishing gender, age, educational level, professional affiliation, social status, range of interests, hobbies, mother tongue, place of formation of linguistic skills);
- Definition of physiological condition at the time of the creation of written linguistic message;
- Diagnosis of sustainable pathologies speech-language mental processes by post;
- Complex tasks associated with design and implementation of evidence selection, design documentation, which appears at the course of the investigation and adjudication;
- A set of tasks related to content analysis of texts and other evidence. Which are described in the text;
- Establishment of plagiarism (if editorial corrections, literary and artistic treatment, etc.);
- Establishing the fact and type of masking speech situation;
- The definition of these terms drafting the text, as the use of computer file-source materials, reference books and more.
5. Language of Legal Science
The history of the formation of scientific style in the field of law, language and style of modern scientific and legal texts, language design standards of scientific papers; regulation of training and the linguistic and technical design of scientific studies in the regulations and state standards; Linguostylistic features of scientific works of different genres and their composite parts;
Legal terminology - general concept of the term and terminological; specific legal terminology, etymology and semantics of basic terms, classification and stratification of legal terms of modern literary Ukrainian language.
6. Language of legal journalism
The content and purpose journalistic text; legal journalism influence on the formation of social and legal thought; compliance Linguostylistic and terminology standards in journalistic texts, use of correct and incorrect means of influence in journalistic texts.
Ukrainian speech etiquette, speech norms of conduct in a professional lawyer, legal and communicative deontyka broadside.
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