Preventing disasters in Ukraine

Emergencies, their classification. Measures of protection in emergency situations of natural character. Strength and protection of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural character. Preventing disasters in Ukraine.

Рубрика Безопасность жизнедеятельности и охрана труда
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 08.10.2012

CONTENTS

Entry

SECTION 1. Emergencies and their classification

SECTION 2. Principles and measures of protection in emergency situations of natural character

SECTION 3. Strength and protection of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural character

SECTION 4. Preventing disasters in Ukraine

SECTION 5. Disaster

Conclusion

Literature

Entry

Every day in the world recorded one thousand events in which there is a disturbance of normal living conditions and human activities and that may cause or lead to loss of life and / or significant material damage. Such events are called emergencies.

Incident - disruption of normal living conditions and activities at the facility or area caused by accident, disaster, natural disasters, epidemics, epizootics, epiphytotics, conflagration, using weapons that have led or may lead to human and material losses.

The media tend to draw public attention to emergencies, especially when they are associated with the life of famous personalities who have led or may lead to a large number of victims, threaten normal life and activity of groups of people, entire regions or even countries. Almost no newspaper publication, issue no radio or television news does not go without these messages.

The real disaster is earthquakes, floods, landslides, mudslides, storms, hurricanes, snow drift, forest fires. Only in the last 20 years they have claimed the lives of over three million people. According to the UN, during this period of almost one billion people on the planet have suffered from natural disasters. For emergency response capabilities involved civil defense, often a significant part of the population and military forces, and the restoration work expended a lot of energy and major material costs.

NA in Ukraine may occur virtually the entire spectrum of natural hazards and processes of geological, hydrogeological and meteorological origin. These include major flooding, catastrophic flooding, earthquakes and landslides, forest and field fires, large snowfalls and ice, hurricanes, tornadoes and squally winds, etc..

Among emergency situations of natural origin in Ukraine most common:

? geological hazards such as landslides, avalanches and debris, earth surface drawdown different backgrounds etc.

? meteorological hazards, such as heavy rains, hurricanes, heavy snowfall, hailstorm, ice;

? hydrological hazards such as floods, flooding, improve groundwater etc.

? natural forest fires and bakery areas;

? massive infection and disease in humans, animals and plants.

Based on the definition of natural disasters as natural phenomena that directly affect the environment and the welfare of the population and is extreme environmental factor, the territory of Ukraine is characterized by very difficult conditions that defines polihenetychnyy nature disasters and certain spatial patterns of their manifestation in different geographical areas and areas .

Peculiarities of the geographical position of Ukraine, atmospheric processes, the presence of mountain ranges, elevations, proximity warm seas leads to a variety of climatic conditions, from excessive moisture in the western Polissya to dry in the southern steppe zone. Exceptional climatic conditions on the southern coast of Crimea, Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and the Crimea. The interaction of all these factors, there are dangerous natural phenomena. In some cases, they are catastrophic for the environment and population.

Natural phenomena usually occur in the complex, which greatly increases their negative impact. Natural hazards, mainly determined by the expression of the three main groups of factors - endogenous, exogenous and meteorological processes.

Natural disasters occurring on the territory of Ukraine can be divided into simple, comprising a single element, such as strong wind shear or earthquake, and complex, involving multiple concurrent processes of one group or several groups, such as adverse weather and geodynamic exogenous processes, endogenous, exogenous and meteorological processes in combination with man-made.

SECTION 1. Emergencies and their classification

emergency situation technogenic

Incident - disruption of normal living conditions and activities at the facility or area caused by accident, disaster, natural disasters, epidemics, epizootics, epiphytotics, conflagration, using weapons that have led or may lead to human and material losses.

Emergencies that may occur on the territory of Ukraine and make a negative impact on the functioning of the economy and livelihoods of the population, are divided in the following main features:

? by fields of;

? an industry basis;

? scale of possible consequences.

Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine № 1099 approved the "Regulations on the classification of emergency." Under this provision, the nature of the origin of the events that lead to emergency situations on the territory of Ukraine are 4 classes of emergencies:

? man-made;

? natural;

? socio-political;

? military.

Each class emergencies divided into groups that contain specific types of them.

Emergency emergencies - a consequence of traffic accidents, fires, explosions or their unprovoked threat of accidents with the release of (the threat of release) of hazardous chemical, radioactive, biological substances, sudden destruction of buildings and, failures of engineering networks and constructions livelihoods, hydrodynamic accidents at dams etc..

Emergencies natural origin - are consequences of dangerous geological, meteorological, hydrological, marine and freshwater phenomena, land degradation or subsoil, natural fires, changes of air pollution, infectious disease in humans, farm animals, mass destruction of crops by pests or diseases, changes of water resources and the biosphere more.

Emergency social and socio-political - a situation related to the illegal actions of terrorist and unconstitutional direction: exercise or a real threat of terrorist attack (armed attack capture and detention of important objects arose nuclear materials, systems and telecommunications, assault or attempted air crew or ship), theft (attempted theft) or disposal of vessels, setting explosives in public places, stealing weapons, ammunition, etc. identify obsolete.

Emergency military nature - a situation related to the effects of weapons of mass destruction or conventional weapons, during which there are secondary factors affecting the population due to the destruction of nuclear and hydroelectric stations, warehouses and storage of radioactive and toxic substances and waste, petroleum products, explosives , highly toxic substances, toxic waste, transport and utilities.

Depending on the spatial distribution, volumes caused or expected economic losses, the number of people who died are 4 levels of emergencies:

? nationwide;

? Regional;

? local;

? There have been.

Emergency state level - is an emergency that develops in two or more regions (Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Kyiv and Sevastopol) or threatens cross-border transfer, as well as when to eliminate it necessary materials and technical resources to the extent that exceed their capabilities separate area (the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Kyiv and Sevastopol), but not less than 1% of the budget expenditures.

Incident regional level - is an emergency that develops in two or more districts (cities of regional importance), the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, oblasts, cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol or threatened transfer to the territory of a neighboring region, and if, when it Elimination of the necessary material and technical resources in amounts that exceed their capabilities separate district, but not less than 1% of the budget expenditures.

Emergency local level - is an emergency that is beyond the scope of potentially dangerous object, situation threatens to spread itself or its secondary effects on the environment, neighboring municipalities, engineering structures, as well as when to eliminate it necessary material and technical resources in amounts that exceed their capabilities object. By the local level also includes all emergency situations that occur on objects of housing and communal services and other non-approved lists of potentially dangerous objects.

Incident site level - this is an emergency situation that does not fall under the above definition, ie such that unfolds at the site or at the facility, its effects do not extend beyond the facility or its buffer zone.

Common signs NA:

? presence or threat of death;

? worsened conditions zhyttyeediyalnosti;

? significant deterioration of the health of people;

? causing economic losses.

Causes of an emergency:

? inattention;

? incompetence;

? ignorance;

? unsatisfactory technical objects;

? violation shipping.

SECTION 2. Principles and measures of protection in emergency situations of natural character

Protection of population and territories from emergency situations

man-made and natural disasters is on the following principles:

? priority tasks aimed at saving lives and preserving human health and the environment;

? unconditional preference for rational and preventive security;

? free access to information on the protection of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural disasters;

? personal responsibility and caring citizens of their safety, strict observance of the rules of conduct and action adzvychaynyh situations of technogenic and natural disasters;

? responsibility within its authority officials for compliance with the requirements of this Act;

? Advance mandatory implementation of measures aimed at the prevention of emergency situations of technogenic and natural disasters and minimizing their negative psychosocial consequences;

? taking into account economic, environmental, and other features of the territories and the degree of danger of emergency man-made and natural disasters;

? maximum, efficient and integrated use of existing capabilities that are designed to prevent man-made disasters and natural disasters and respond to them.

The main activities in the field of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural disasters are:

1. Information and Alerts. This is the basic principle and the major essential element of the whole system of measures such protection. Information is information of anthropogenic and natural origin, forecasted or arose from the determination of their classification, distribution limits and consequences, as well as methods and techniques to respond to them. Alert threat of of anthropogenic and natural origin and continuous information about these people is provided by:

? early build and maintain a constant readiness of national and local automated systems of the central public notification;

? organizational and technical connection territorial centralized notification and warning systems for facilities management;

? Early development and organizational and technical connection with systems of surveillance and control of permanent local warning systems and awareness in areas potentially catastrophic flooding areas where radiation and chemical plants and other hazardous objects;

? centralized use of national and sectoral systems of communication, leading radio, television alert radio broadcasting networks and other technical means of information transfer.

2. Observations. In order to timely protection of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural disasters, prevent and respond to relevant central and local executive bodies shall: creating and maintaining constant readiness of national and regional systems of supervision and control by the inclusion of these existing capabilities control , organization, gathering, processing and transmission of information on the environment, food contamination, food stuff, feed, water, radioactive chemicals, microorganisms and other biological agents.

3.Ukryttya in the defenses. Shelter in the defenses, if necessary, shall be in accordance with its population belonging to groups (working shift, the population living in hazardous areas). Creating a protective structures provided by:

? complex of underground space development of cities and towns to mutually agreed accommodate the buildings and premises of social, industrial and economic purposes with the need to adapt and use of the premises for the shelter population in the event of anthropogenic and natural origin;

? examination and recording of underground and surface buildings and structures that meet the requirements of protection structures underground area towns, mining and natural cavities;

? retrofit considering the real situation basements and other underground facilities;

? construction of underground facilities, which are located separately from production facilities and adapted for defense;

? mass building, in the period of threat of anthropogenic and natural origin, simple storage and shelter;

? building some shelters and anti-radiation shelter.

The list of such shelters, shelters and other protective dispute which should be built each year is determined by the specially authorized central executive body which is authorized to issue of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural character, and approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Available Fund protective structures used for economic, cultural and everyday needs.

4. Evacuation measures. In partial support of protective structures in cities and other localities with high risk, the primary means of protection is evacuation and placing it in areas that are safe for people to live and animals. Evacuation zones made from potentially catastrophic flooding, possible hazardous contamination, chemical lesions in areas of natural disasters, accidents and catastrophes (if there is imminent danger to life and health). Depending on the situation that prevailed at the time of anthropogenic and natural origin, can be carried out total or partial evacuation of a temporary or irreversible character. Total evacuation is carried out by the decision of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine for all categories of the population and will be the case: the possible hazardous contamination areas around nuclear power plants (if there is imminent danger to life and health of people living in the affected area), the threat of catastrophic flooding areas with Perforated four-crest wave. Partial evacuation carried out by the decision of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in case of a threat or occurrence of anthropogenic and natural origin. During the partial evacuation ahead exported not engaged in manufacturing and servicing of the population: children, students of schools, orphanages, together with teachers and educators, students, pensioners and the disabled are kept in homes for the elderly, along with servicing personnel and their families.

Evacuation plans in case of:

? nuclear power plant accident with possible contamination of the territory;

? all types of accidents involving the release of highly toxic substances;

? threat of catastrophic flooding areas;

? forest and peat fires, earthquakes, landslides and other geophysical and meteorological phenomena with serious consequences that threaten settlements.

Conducting orderly evacuation, prevention of panic and prevent loss of life provided by:

? planning evacuation;

? determine areas suitable to accommodate evacuees from potentially dangerous areas;

? Organization alert managers and the public about the beginning of the evacuation;

? organization evacuation management;

? comprehensive life support in the field of safe resettlement of evacuees;

? study population actions during the evacuation.

Evacuation is produced by removal of the population from dangerous zones available all kinds of transport, and in his absence or failure, and in the case of destruction of transportation routes - organized breeding populations foot on pre-designed routes.

5. Engineering protection. During the design and operation of buildings and other facilities management, the consequences of which could adversely affect the safety of people and the environment, must designed and implemented engineering protection measures to prevent the occurrence of anthropogenic and natural origin. They should include:

? consideration during the development of master plans of towns and urban planning possible manifestations in certain regions and in certain areas of hazardous and catastrophic events;

? rational distribution of high-risk, taking into account the possible consequences of their activities in the event of accidents for public safety and the environment, build homes, buildings, structures, utilities and transport communications with desired levels of safety and reliability;

? develop and implement measures accident-free operation of high risk;

? a comprehensive protection scheme settlements and facilities management of hazardous natural processes;

? Develop and implement regional and local plans to prevent and eliminate the consequences of anthropogenic and natural origin;

? organization building landslide, protypovinevyh, protyselevyh, avalanche, erosion and other engineering structures for special purposes;

? implementation of measures of sanitary protection area.

6. Medical protection. Measures to prevent or reduce the degree of destruction of people, and the timely provision of medical assistance to the victims and their treatment, providing epidemiological in areas of anthropogenic and natural origin should include:

? planning and the use of existing capabilities of health care regardless of ownership and management;

? implementation of the National Plan of psychosocial interventions in the occurrence and elimination of anthropogenic and natural origin;

? deployment conditions of anthropogenic and natural character of the required number of hospitals;

? advance of preventive medicines and sanitary-epidemiological measures;

? quality control of food products and raw materials, water and sources of supply;

? monitoring of air and precipitation;

? advance the creation and training of specialized medical units;

? accumulation of medical remedies, medical and special property and equipment;

? monitoring of environmental, sanitary and epidemiological situation;

? training of medical staff and general medical and sanitary education of the population.

To provide free medical assistance to victims of of anthropogenic and natural character of citizens, rescue workers and persons involved in disaster management of man-made and natural disasters, acts Public Service emergency medicine as a special kind of public emergency services. Treatment and psychological recovery categories of people held in the spa facilities at which the centers for medical and psychological rehabilitation.

7. Biological protection. Protection against biological weapons includes detecting biological factors of infection, depending on the type and extent of damage, a complex of administrative, economic, regime-restrictive and specific preventive and medical measures.

Biological protection includes:

? timely use of collective and personal protective equipment;

? introduction modes of quarantine and observation;

? decontamination of the lesion;

? necessary decontamination of people, animals, etc.;

? timely localization zones biological weapon;

? of emergency and specific prevention;

? compliance epidemiological regime enterprises, institutions and organizations regardless of ownership and management and the public.

8. Radiation and chemical protection.

Radiation and chemical protection includes measures for the detection and evaluation of radiation and chemical environment, organization and implementation of radiation and chemical control, development of typical modes of radiation protection of individual and collective protection, organizing and conducting special treatment.

Compliance with radiation and chemical protection is provided by:

? Early accumulation and maintain the readiness of personal protective equipment and radiation and chemical control, and storage volumes are determined according to established zones dangers of these tools primarily of personnel groups involved in conducting rescue and other emergency operations in lesions, and personnel radiation and chemically hazardous facilities management and the population living in areas of dangerous infection around them;

? timely implementation tools, techniques and methods for identifying and assessing the extent and consequences on radiation and chemically hazardous facilities management;

? create uniform protection, devices and kits radiation and chemical control;

? provision of opportunities available in the prescribed manner for personal use of personal protective equipment and dosimeters;

? early adaptation objects public services and transport companies for the sanitization of people and special treatment of clothing, property and transport;

? develop common criteria, methods and techniques of observation to assess the radiological and chemical environment;

? adapting existing collective protection from other threats to protect against radiation and chemical hazards.

SECTION 3. Strength and protection of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural character

These include those capabilities of central and local executive bodies, enterprises, institutions and organizations regardless of ownership and management, unified state system, and voluntary rescue formation, involved in conducting such work.

Professional emergency services and special (paramilitary) emergency services that make up these capabilities, staffed with the need to conduct offline for at least three days and are in a constant state of readiness.

In case of emergency situations of natural character of permanent readiness forces involved for urgent response. For disaster management natural nature under the law may be involved and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and other military formations created in accordance with the laws of Ukraine. Enterprises, institutions and organizations regardless of ownership and management in the field of population and territory NA natural character

? plan and carry out the necessary measures to protect their employees, facilities management and environmental protection from emergency nature;

? developing plans for localization and liquidation of accidents (accidents), followed by approval of a specially authorized central executive body which is authorized to issue of population and territories from emergency situations of natural origin;

? maintained in readiness for use of force and means of preventing and disaster management of natural origin;

? create and maintain material reserves for the prevention and rescue of natural origin;

? ensure timely notification of the employees of the threat or occurrence of NA natural character.

Associations may participate in activities on disaster management of natural origin in accordance with this Law and the Law of Ukraine "On the emergency services." Citizens of Ukraine in the field of population and territories from emergency situations of natural origin shall:

? observe safety measures to prevent violations of work discipline, environmental safety requirements;

? learn basic methods of population and territories from emergency situations of natural character effects, first aid to victims, how to use protective equipment;

? comply with the requirements in the event of emergency situations of natural character.

The procedure for preparation of the population in enterprises, institutions and organizations to act in case of emergency situations of natural character is determined by the specially authorized central executive body which is authorized to issue of population and territories from emergency situations of natural disasters.

SECTION 4. Preventing disasters in Ukraine

Unified state system to prevent and respond to emergency situations of technogenic and natural character (YEDSZR) includes central and local executive bodies, executive bodies of councils, state enterprises, institutions and organizations with appropriate forces and resources, overseeing the maintenance of man-made and natural security, organize the work of the emergency prevention (NA) of anthropogenic and natural origin and respond as they occur in order to protect people and the environment, reduce material losses.

YEDSZR objectives are:

? development regulations and the rules, regulations and standards on the prevention of disasters and protection of population and territories from their consequences;

? preparedness of central and local executive bodies, executive councils, subordinate forces and means of action to prevent and respond to Emergencies;

? ensure the implementation of measures to prevent the National Assembly;

? teaching people about the behavior and actions in the case of the National Assembly;

? performance targets and research programs aimed at the prevention of PSD, sustainable operation of enterprises, institutions and organizations, to mitigate the potential financial losses;

? collection and analytical processing of information about the National Assembly, the publication of information materials on protection of population and territories from the effects of NA;

? prediction and assessment of the socio-economic impact of PSD determination based on the forecast demand for power, mass, material and financial resources;

? creation, preservation and rational use of reserve material and financial resources needed to prevent and respond to NA and others.

Depending on the size and characteristics of the National Assembly, predicted, or there may be one of the following modes of operation YEDSZR:

? regime daily activities - at normal industrial production, radiation, chemical, biological (bacteriological), seismic, hydrogeological and hydrometeorological conditions;

? mode high alert - with a significant deterioration of industrial production, radiation, chemical, biological, seismic, hydrogeological and meteorological conditions (to give prognostic information regarding the possibility of an emergency);

? mode of activity in an emergency - when the real threat of PSD and response;

? mode activity in a state of emergency - is introduced in Ukraine or in its particular areas in the manner prescribed by the Constitution and laws of Ukraine "On the State of Emergency."

SECTION 5. Disaster

Preventing NA and its elimination is a complex set of necessary measures varied orientation.

In order to timely conduct work related to the National Assembly established an integrated management system to respond to emergency situations of technogenic and natural character. It is a system of central and local executive bodies and management of public enterprises, institutions and organizations with relevant material and financial resources and powers. These organs supervise observance of natural and industrial safety, organize implementation of the prevention of disasters natural and industrial origin and response in the event of their occurrence in order to protect people and the environment, reducing material losses. The system shall be composed of permanent functional and territorial subsystems and has four levels of control scale: national, regional, local and objective.

The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine operates Parliamentary Committee on Environmental Policy, Natural Resources and Elimination of Consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Functions of a unified state system by the Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe (MNF). Ministry is the main (leading) body in the system of central executive authorities to ensure the implementation of state policy in the field of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural disasters, the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, rescue, fire safety, establishment and operation of an insurance fund documentation radioactive waste management, injury prevention unproductive nature.

Standing body that coordinates the activities of central and local executive bodies related to safety and protection of population and territories Emergency Response natural (natural) and anthropogenic origin is the State Commission on technogenic and ecological security and emergency situations. The main activities of the Commission in the field of ecology are: coordination of interaction associated with the creation and operation of the national system to prevent and respond to accidents, disasters and other emergencies, organization and carrying out of works on liquidation of consequences of environmental emergencies. The Commission cooperates with the organizations of countries that are subjected to negative consequences as a result of an emergency situation that arose in Ukraine determines the amount of damage caused by this situation.

Besides the general and special competence to provide responses to the National Assembly in matters involving departmental competence and executive authorities and local government, public education, citizens.

Disaster relief is aimed at the resumption of business organizations, educational institutions and others. It includes:

? intelligence centers emergencies;

? rescue and medical evacuation measures;

? localization and extinguishing fires;

? rebuilding facilities and routes;

? of insulating-restrictive measures in the cells of biological contamination;

? the special treatment of the population;

? deactivation, decontamination equipment, roads, terrain, etc..

CONCLUSION

Technogenic and natural security is considered as the basic component of civil protection of population and territories from emergency situations, as one of the most important functions of government and economic entities. Current trends increase the risks of emergency situations of technogenic and natural character necessitated the development of a unified state system of civil protection of population and territories on the basis of sustainable development of society and modern management principles anthropogenic and natural security. One of the priorities of the safe life of Ukrainian society is to increase the level of precautionary policy on civil protection of population and territories from emergency situations. Modern scientific and methodological approaches and experience of developed countries shows that an effective model of such protection should be based on risk management of emergency situations of technogenic and natural character. Application of quantitative methods to assess technological and natural risks is one of the strategic directions to achieve an acceptable level of state security for the population, environment and objects of the economy.

As a result of an emergency or natural emergencies (and generally any origin) can form an ecological emergency situation when a particular area the populations can be either clearly impossible (as occurred after the Chernobyl accident), or to require restrictions.

Under the current legislation of Ukraine on the ecological state of emergency adopts the President of Ukraine upon the submission of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

As noted, humanity is not guaranteed by the probability of emergencies, both natural and manmade, but every individual and society as a whole have the right to protection of life, health and property in the event of their occurrence.

The main component of protection against emergencies is maintaining proper technological safety of fixed assets, reliable manufacturing and industry, etc..

In composite systems of population and territories from emergency situations include:

? network surveillance environment and operation of high-risk, reliability buildings, engineering structures and communications;

? PPE population;

? means for responding to emergency situations of natural and man-made disasters;

? information-analytical system for decision support in emergency situations and during emergency response;

? stock material and technical resources for implementation of priority activities during emergencies.

One of the most important tasks for the prevention of disasters is to establish and maintain the network performance observations. Timely detection of emergency allows to take proactive measures for which an emergency or not completely prevent or significantly minimize its negative effects.

REFERENCES

1. Safety / Ed. Ya Bedriya - Lviv: Publishing company "Bill", 1998.

2. Law of Ukraine "On the emergency services."

3. Law of Ukraine "On protection of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural character."

4. Law of Ukraine "On the State of Emergency."

5. Law of Ukraine "On the legal state of emergency"

6. Dzhygyr VS Zhytetskyy NL Safety. Textbook. - Lions, 2000.

7. The action in emergencies. ROD CO and HC. - K., 1997.

8. Lapin V. Safety. - Lviv Banking College, 1998.

9. Leihovych GG Handbook of Civil Defense. - K., 1999.

10. Basics BC. Guide. - K., 2001.

11. Regulation "On the classification of emergency."

12. Rudko GI, fyke MB, Bondarenko MD Regional, local and special modes of dangerous geological processes as the basis for reducing the potential risk technogene accidents and disasters. - K., 1997

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