Relationship between strategic management and leadership

The impact of management and leadership styles on strategic decisions. Creating a leadership strategy that supports organizational direction. Appropriate methods to review current leadership requirements. Plan for the development of future situations.

20.05.2015

http://www.stud.wiki.ru/

The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation

Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

Chair of Foreign Languages 1

PROJECT

Relationship between strategic management and leadership

Performed by

Bekhoev Shamil

Management Department

Group 1420

Moscow 2015

Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1.

1.1 The link between strategic management and leadership

1.2 The impact of management and leadership styles on strategic decisions in H&M

Summary

Chapter 2

2.1 The impact that selected theories of management and leadership have on organisational strategy

2.2 Creating a leadership strategy that supports organizational direction

Summary

Chapter 3

3.1 Appropriate methods to review current leadership requirements

3.2 Plan for the development of future situations requiring leadership

Summary

Conclusion

Glossary

References

Introduction

Strategic management as a term and concept is not new. The term was first used in the 1970s, and it meant that a staff of strategic planners more or less thought up strategic programs and then tried to sell them to decision makers. In the 1990s, the view of strategic planning and strategic management is much different. Goodstein, Nolan, and Pfeiffer's definition of strategic planning takes us away from the notion that strategic planning is a staff job and focuses us more on a process that requires the senior leaders of an organization to set its strategic direction. It is defined as the process by which the guiding members of an organization envision its future and develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future (Goodstein, Nolan, and Pfeiffer, 1992)

It consists of the analysis, decisions, and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain competitive advantages. This definition captures two main elements that go to the heart of the field of strategic management. First, the strategic management of an organization entails three ongoing processes: analysis, decisions, and actions. That is, strategic management is concerned with the analysis of strategic goals (vision, mission, and strategic objectives) along with the analysis of the internal and external environment of the organization. Next, leaders must make strategic decisions. These decisions, broadly speaking, address two basic questions: What industries should we compete in? How should we compete in those industries? These questions also often involve an organization's domestic as well as its international operations. And last are the actions that must be taken. Decisions are of little use, of course, unless they are acted on. Firms must take the necessary actions to implement their strategies. This requires leaders to allocate the necessary resources and to design the organization to bring the intended strategies to reality. As we will see in the next section, this is an ongoing, evolving process that requires a great deal of interaction among these three processes. Second, the essence of strategic management is the study of why some firms outperform others. Thus, managers need to determine how a firm is to compete so that it can obtain advantages that are sustainable over a lengthy period of time. That means focusing on two fundamental questions: How should we compete in order to create competitive advantages in the marketplace? For example, managers need to determine if the firm should position itself as the low-cost producer, or develop products and services that are unique which will enable the firm to charge premium prices-or some combination of both. Strategic leadership: Strategic leadership refers to a manager's potential to express a strategic vision for the organization, or a part of the organization, and to motivate and persuade others to acquire that vision. It's a leader's point of view, for making a strategy so that all the aims and objectives of the organization can meet and it helps in achieving success for the organization

Chapter 1

1.1 The link between strategic management and leadership

A leadership is the bridge between strategic management and their target. It's because of a leadership that organization gets their desired tasks and targets.

Management is responsible for people and resources in a unit according to rules or values that have already been set while the leadership set a direction to the people in group.

Good leadership and effective management are always the key of success in any organization so both of these are the skills which going side by side without management a good leadership can only satisfy for the time being not in a long term same as an effective management is nothing without the good leadership.

When great leadership is jointed with effective management, you are able to set a direction and be able to allocate the resources the way you want. Not only that, you will achieve your goal the way you have thought and the way you want to achieve.

Example: In 1970 Iceland sprang to life when Malcolm Walker and another bored, young retailer decided to open a shop in an attempt to make their fortunes. They raised initial capital of just ?60 to pay one month's rent and opened the very first Iceland in Oswestry, Shropshire in November 1970. In those days, before domestic fridges and freezers became commonplace, Iceland specialized in selling loose frozen food. 1984 Expanding through new store openings and the acquisition of smaller chains, Iceland had 81 stores by 1984. 2010 Iceland again achieved record results for its financial year to March 2010. (Source: www.iceland.co.uk)

At first the Iceland company start with loose frozen food in a local area, they satisfy their customer, in these present situation the ICELAND use the way to lead their employee, that is their vision and they success. In addition the leader will lead the employees through strategy. Without strategy the leader cannot lead, cannot make their profit. The leader lead their employees how they use their process to lead their employees, these is strategy to reach their goal.

The mission is the short, formal written document how the leaders lead their employees, what purpose the leader lead the organization. And leadership is the process how to lead them; this process is strategy. Iceland leaders lead their employees for this purpose that is their missions to run their business. To fill up their mission the leader lead employees that is strategy.

Objectives, that means the leaders of the company goal. This is the leader's expected what the employees do, how to continue their business, how to act, how they make profit. The Iceland start with loose frozen food, between 1970 to 2011 these 40 years, the key to this success was a strategy of making the business simpler and refocusing on its traditional strengths.

The leaders of the Iceland how they continue their all mission, vision, how they act that is strategy to lead their employees to reach their goals. Leadership cannot achieve their objectives without strategic management.

To cut it short a manager is considered a copy of the leader, responsible for communicating the rules and philosophies of the company to individual employees, and insuring that they abide by them. For a manager, his or her relationships with employees are determined by a hierarchical management system, and rarely through personal ones. They are responsible for maintaining the day to day operations of the company so the cogs of the operation stay well-oiled. Managers are generally more concerned with the quarterly bottom line, and will often base decisions based on these calculations. Good managers are often considered good soldiers in that they rarely question the decisions of the higher echelons of the company, and only serve to enforce the execution of its policies. In contrast, a leader focuses on interpersonal relationships with other important contacts in other companies, as well as promoting promising individuals within the company to foster innovation. A leader bases his or her decisions on reports from department heads to assess the entire company's situation, and future strategies. A true leader will also be willing to ignore the company's quarterly bottom line for several quarters - much to the chagrin of shareholders - and make investments for a long-range growth perspective. A leader is considered a fearless innovator in that he or she challenges the status quo and is unafraid to take high risks in search of high rewards, for customers, employees and shareholders alike. It is said that a manager asks how and when, whereas a leader asks what and why. In many professions, managers and leaders assume the same role. However, if a leader of a business simply manages a company - rather than challenge its true potential - then it will likely fall behind its industry peers. Likewise, if managers overstep their bounds and attempt to revolt against the company, then they may soon find themselves out of the job. In some cases, where micromanagement is essential to maximize efficiency, nurture skills and keep employees organized, strong managers are an absolute necessity to prevent high turnover rates and the brain drain of a skilled workforce. A good leader will also stay in the front line of battle, and be familiar with every aspect of the company, leading through inspiration rather than coercing through hierarchical control. A perfect manager who attains the status of a true leader will be able to lead people effectively and draw on the correct strengths and knowledge of every key individual in the company. Many managers will struggle for their entire careers and never attain this, but a skilled few will evolve into true leaders. When great leadership is jointed with effective management, you are able to set a direction and be able to allocate the resources the way you want. Not only that, you will achieve your goal the way you have thought and the way you want to achieve.

1.2 The impact of management and leadership styles on strategic decisions

The general concept according to my understanding from various literature reviews are that Leaders' leads people and managers manage all things in organization, furthermore to my concepts the important point is that leaders are the people who bring changes in organizations and managers may be considered as people who sustain the day to day organisational activities.

The main point in this task is to explain the impact of Leadership and management of an organization. Here I am elaborating leadership and management of Martin McColl, this organisation having approximately 1,000 outlets and 50,000 employees across United Kingdom, the main focus of the company is on Books, Cards, Magazines, Confectionary, Toys and Drinks etc.

Martin McColl is UK based corporate company. Martin McColl has a democratic leadership where subordinates involve in decision-making. Company has a board of directors and Steve is a head of directors. It is seen that Martin has authoritarian systems in which their people work as directed.

Merger and acquisition continued in martin McColl. In 1998 For buoys acquired Martin Retail Group which was before RS McColl. In 1999 company launch new convenience concept McColl's. In 2004 the company acquired Dillon stores. In 2005 company changed its name to Martin McColl Retail Group and now martin is the UK's leading neighbour retailing group.

These changes allow leaders and managers to makes good decisions which give the strength to business. These changes brought many changes such as economic condition been changed, development changed, competition increased this changes brought new markets like stationery stores, specialist card shops. Furthermore supermarkets like Tesco and Sainsbury's were selling everything that Martin did. So there was a big competition.

Knowledge sharing and strong communication always been there so the strategy of Martin was focus on its core activities and increase, improving buying power sell higher margin items and makes their with sales of newer lines. Company has a wide variety of roles at two head offices in Scotland and Brentwood. Here company centralise core business divisions including Central Retail Operations, Trading, Marketing, Finance, Supply Chain, Business System etc.

In all these above cases, management and leaders realized that changes were occurred and react actively. And in all these cases, they responded only when the competition forced them to do so.

H&M, Hennes and Mauritz

H&M is well known as a successful and expansive Swedish fashion group. Today, it operates in 38 countries and has 76,000 employees throughout Europe, North America and Asia. The company offers a range of clothing, cosmetic, footwear and accessories for men, women, children and teenagers as stated in Ideas and Thoughts, (2009). The business runs by strong values as commercial mindset, simplicity, constant improvement, cost consciousness and entrepreneurship.

The CEO of H&M is Mr. Stefan Persson (born 4.10.1947), since 1982 Mr. Stefan has been the main shareholder of H&M. In 2010, he is second richest person in Sweden and 13th richest person in the world. In 2009 his son Mr. Karl-Johan Persson took over as president and CEO of H&M. The management strategy is linked with its leader, CEO of H&M. So far the vision of leadership is implemented with certain strategies to increase 10-15% in the number of stores every year, which would be founded internally. The aim is to increase sales in existing stores, while focusing on quality and continued profitability.

Impact: As a leading company of fashion and retail business they always have to boost their business strategy among the competitors. The strategy of H&M has been developing along with continuous business expansion, price competitiveness and profitability and reduction of lead time. In terms of expansion, the company has expanded largely around 2,000 stores in the recent years and they also extended in business like home wares and online shopping store. Talking about price competitiveness, H&M do business with right merchandise from the right production markets, being cost-conscious at all levels and maintaining effective distribution producers. Hence, quality products are be sold in an affordable price that can always beat the competitors while making profit. Furthermore, H&M is using IT system to control sales and the stocks, for the company to react quickly whenever new trends are identified and to avoid procurement of goods which are not appreciated by the market. Likewise, H&M relies on efficient and integrated systems for inventory management which have been able to reduce lead times while ensuring sufficient stock management.

H&M is leading the way in following a strategy of vertical integration with distribution network. This strategy has allowed the company to directly collect and fully exploit information about sales and customers in order to improve and accelerate response to the market. (Source: www.ebusinesswatch.org, 2004)

In my own understanding, management and leadership strategies play a vital role in reaching the vision of the organization. Without the effective implementation of those would make the company paralyzed and unproductive.

So how leadership styles can be adapted to different situations???

H&M management is performing a democratic leadership wherein staffs are encouraged to be involved in any activities pertaining to achieving a certain goal. In addition, open communication is present between the management and the staffs that would somehow break some grudges with one another. As part of it, meetings and trainings for both business and personal development with provided feedbacks for one's improvement are also practiced.

H&M is committed to providing a workplace environment that offers employees opportunities to express their initiative and ideas. Team work, communication, respect and sharing of the responsibilities make the workplace unique and empowering. (Source: H&M UK, 2008)

Through the business strategies of H&M, the organization continues to grow up and leading as one of the top worldwide fashion and retail business. The management of H&M is comprehensible and determined to achieve the objective which is to be a leader in fashion and retail world for long.

As another example, speaking about leadership legacy today I should mention Steve Jobs. He was a genius when it came to product innovations and he created an environment at Apple that allowed his impact to be felt long after his death. However, it is important to separate Jobs' innovation legacy from his actual leadership legacy. That is how Jobs impacted the people around him. When it came to management style, Steve Jobs was not a boss for everyone. There are hundreds of stories that illustrate just how difficult he was to work for and to work with. He was such a genius that his leadership style is often overlooked, but before comparing oneself to Steve Jobs, a leader should keep in mind the fact that his style of management wasn't about people. If you aren't changing the world with your products and services, what will your legacy be? The answer? People. When leaving a legacy, you should think more about the people you leave behind, rather than the products and services you leave behind. After all, products and services come and go. It is the people that will keep the company moving forward toward its vision.

As another great idol - Jack Welch is one of the most famous business leaders of all time. Welch is as synonymous with General Electric as Steve Jobs is to Apple and Vince Lombardi is to the Green Bay Packers. Welch is famous for a lot of things - not all of which are positive - but he did create a leadership legacy that has been able to survive long after his exit from GE.

When most companies find themselves looking for a new CEO, they often have to put together a search committee to draw candidates from other organizations. This is not true at General Electric. They are very clear about their mission and process for developing leaders from within. When Jeff Immelt, the current CEO of GE retires, there are most likely several candidates in line who have been groomed over the years to step into that role when called upon. The same holds true for leadership positions down the line. GE puts a great deal of time, effort, and resources behind training and developing talent from within. Bernard Marcus and Arthur Blank founded Home Depot after being fired from the home improvement store chain Handy Dan by a man who famously referred to himself as Ming the Merciless, a noteworthy leadership legacy in itself. Blank and Marcus took the lessons they learned from that experience and used it to create a company that put the focus on employees. Instead of treating payroll as an expense, they viewed it as an investment, recruiting strong talent at all levels, paying those people what they were worth, and investing in their career growth and development.

Marcus and Blank were famous for practicing what they preached, spending a great deal of time on the floor in stores, and living up to their philosophy that people - customers and associates alike, drive the success of a business. When they eventually retired from Home Depot, they made an interesting choice. Rather than promoting from within, they looked outside of the organization for a successor. That is where they found Bob Nardelli, and ex-GE executive who had lost a bid to replace Jack Welch.

They had hoped they were leaving a legacy that would last well into the future. However, Nardelli's leadership style could not have been more different than the style of Blank and Marcus. Nardelli was famous for a top-down, authoritative approach to management, and he tried to apply that style to an organization that had thrived from day one on empowering employees at all levels to make their own decisions. Throughout Nardelli's tenure, Home Depot lost a great deal of talent thanks to this extreme culture shift. Eventually Home Depot righted the ship, and they have returned their focus to developing talent from within and creating a culture that will allow the vision and mission of Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank to continue.

Leaving a Legacy is About More than Just You

When you consider what type of legacy you will leave behind, it is important to recognize that the culture of the company plays a key role in the process. If you do not cultivate an environment in which leaders and employees can carry on your vision, your legacy cannot live on. Leaving a legacy requires almost as much focus on culture as your personal style and achievements.

GE has a culture that recognizable. GE people are known for working a certain way, managing a certain way, and tackling problems a certain way. Home Depot, which has a very different way of doing things, is also known for its culture, and it is that culture that helps ensure the vision of its founders will live on, despite a few hiccups along the way.

Summary

First, the strategic management of an organization entails three ongoing processes: analysis, decisions, and actions. That is, strategic management is concerned with the analysis of strategic goals (vision, mission, and strategic objectives) along with the analysis of the internal and external environment of the organization. Next, leaders must make strategic decisions.

These decisions, broadly speaking, address two basic questions: What industries should we compete in? How should we compete in those industries? These questions also often involve an organization's domestic as well as its international operations.

A leadership is the bridge between strategic management and their target. It's because of a leadership that organization gets their desired tasks and targets.

Management is responsible for people and resources in a unit according to rules or values that have already been set while the leadership set a direction to the people in group.

Good leadership and effective management are always the key of success in any organization so both of these are the skills which going side by side without management a good leadership can only satisfy for the time being not in a long term same as an effective management is nothing without the good leadership.

When great leadership is jointed with effective management, you are able to set a direction and be able to allocate the resources the way you want. Not only that, you will achieve your goal the way you have thought and the way you want to achieve.

Good managers are often considered good soldiers in that they rarely question the decisions of the higher echelons of the company, and only serve to enforce the execution of its policies. In contrast, a leader focuses on interpersonal relationships with other important contacts in other companies, as well as promoting promising individuals within the company to foster innovation. A leader bases his or her decisions on reports from department heads to assess the entire company's situation, and future strategies. A true leader will also be willing to ignore the company's quarterly bottom line for several quarters - much to the chagrin of shareholders - and make investments for a long-range growth perspective.

A true leader will also be willing to ignore the company's quarterly bottom line for several quarters - much to the chagrin of shareholders - and make investments for a long-range growth perspective. A leader is considered a fearless innovator in that he or she challenges the status quo and is unafraid to take high risks in search of high rewards, for customers, employees and shareholders alike. It is said that a manager asks how and when, whereas a leader asks what and why.

management leadership strategy

Chapter 2

2.1 The impact that selected theories of management and leadership have on organisational strategy

The Trait Theory: This theory is derived from `the great man' theory, which identifies the key characteristics of a good and successful leader. They have personality, dominance, charisma, self-confidence, achievements and ability to formulate a clear vision

It is believed that through this approach critical leadership traits could be isolated and that people with such traits could then be recruited, selected, and installed into leadership positions.

The list shown below lists the main leadership traits and skills identified by Stogdill in 1974.

Adaptable to situations

Alert to social environment

Assertive

Cooperative

Decisive

Dependable

Dominant (desire to influence others)

Energetic (high activity level)

Persistent

Self-confident

Tolerant of stress

Willing to assume responsibility

Clever (smart and intelligent)

Conceptually skilled

Creative

Diplomatic and tactful

Fluent in speaking

Knowledgeable about group task

Organised (administrative ability)

Persuasive

Socially skilled

Impact on Organisational Strategy: A leader with these traits and skills is able to drive the organisation. It is of this reason that organizations around the world look for these traits in the candidates for the commission.

Leader is responsible for everything the team does or fails to do. Since they are in direct contact with employees so they need to have following traits and act as a role-model.

At organisational level, leaders are required to influence the whole organisation by managing the cultural norms, rewards and recognition programs, and communication.

When they get at a high level where they have to lead a city, state or a multi-national corporation, they require power of persuasion and charisma, if they are going to get elected.

Their self-confidence enables them to challenge change, and their communication skills helps them to gain trust of others, since they have persuasion power.

The point where Traits Theory fails is when following questions are asked

Do these traits produce successful leaders?

Is leadership more than just bringing change?

Leaders are born or can they be made?

The trait theory unfortunately does not prescribe the most effective traits that successful leaders should have. Nonetheless, the theory makes good sense when interpreting successful leaders with their remarkable traits. The most important problem in applying it is how leaders can know better about themselves and their leadership qualities.

Transformational Theory: James MacGregor wrote in his Burns `Leadership' was the first to put forward the concept of Transforming leadership. To MacGregor transforming leadership is a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents. He also identified that: Transforming leadership occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality.

This theory is based on charismatic leaders, who have additional characteristics such as vision and development, and abilities to motivate it followers.

Impact on Organisational Strategy: Howell and Avolio (1999) assert that transformational leadership with its five key pillars namely vision, inspiration, stimulation, coaching, and team building. And a leader with such characteristics will bring tremendous payoffs in business performance and innovation. There are certain transformational leadership factors identified by Nahavandi, which are:

Intellectual stimulation to generate new ideas and empowerment

Charisma and inspiration to overcome resistance to change,

Individual incentives and consideration to motivate and encourage the followers.

Since our current business environment is very dynamic, so does the need for change in leadership style. Transformational Leadership is also not very perfect; it has its own flaws. This theory fails when a leader thinks that they have achieved everything; the false connection when its team members or followers do not respond appropriately and become `yes-man'; the fear of betrayal from followers.

So what is organizational strategy anyway?

Simply put, organizational strategy is a clear definition of how the organization needs to change - over time - in order to be able to deliver the strategy of the enterprise and an actionable plan of how to make the transformation. This requires both the thinking and analysis to compare current state to desired state and define the gap, and the execution capabilities to make the requisite changes happen.

Key strategic considerations include:

The extended structure of the enterprise (and what re-configurations, reach extensions and strategic relationships will be necessary to deliver the espoused strategy )

The new skills and capabilities that will be required (and how this will affect workforce composition and talent acquisition and development needs; which process and operational capability improvements will be necessary)

The talent management practices necessary to create a high performance workforce (and what adjustments will be needed to create a climate that stimulates and engages the total organization for peak performance)

The operating culture of the business (and how it might need to change to fit the value proposition and operating style required)

The performance results that will be needed (and what will be necessary to achieve them)

The purposeful integration and fit of all operating activities to assure total enterprise alignment to the cause

2.2 Creating a leadership strategy that supports organizational direction

Leaders at all levels require skills and abilities in three broad areas:

1. Technical knowledge and skills required in the position, especially about executive information systems.

2. Interpersonal/communication knowledge and skills.

3. Conceptual skills which allow the strategic leader to make decisions and cope with the level of complexity associated with a particular position.

Leadership Strategy: Self-Leadership:

Before Leaders commit to lead others, they need to commit to themselves. Leaders need to ensure that they have qualities and characteristics of a good leader. They need to create a personal vision. They need to explore themselves first. What they can achieve with their talent, tools and time. They need to create a big picture of their vision and align it with that of organisation. Once that is down, the next step is to bring their followers on board, and align their motivation with organization's strategy.

Team Leadership: This is very important in order to empower team member and their networking activities. It is helpful since there are people with different ethnic backgrounds and cultures. Everyone has different skills and fields of specialization. It is important for leaders to ensure that team members are selected on the basis of their field of specialization, unique talents, skills and share a same vision. Every team member need to play its own part and should not depend on others. Like in sales team, every member has its own sales target, which they have to achieve on their own. But this does not mean that members cannot take help from each other in case of stock control. Empowerment is promoted in the project teams, which enables them to make certain decisions, like sales assistant is empowered to make a sale or refuse it, or if they like to entertain the 2% discount on certain items.

In today's ultra-competitive business environment, executives and managers often have varying degrees of leadership skills and training. While obtaining comprehensive leadership skills training is the best way to integrate key leadership responsibilities into the workplace, understanding and utilizing the following tips can help you resolve conflicts, improve employee performance and lead change throughout the organization:

? Lead by Example

? This is one of the most important leadership skills. If you demonstrate a strong work ethic, your staff will follow. As an executive, you have a responsibility manage and guide the staff, to inspire enthusiasm and stimulate their interests. Make sure you look out for their welfare and they will be appreciative of your efforts by being productive and maintaining high company standards.

? Ensure Long-Term Organizational Success

? Focus on the long term. While there are numerous factors that could steer your company off-track - the changing economy, the board of directors or technology in your industry - you need to stay focused on the long-term success of your organization. Otherwise, there will be no roadmap or plan of attack.

? Improve the Organization from Day 1

? From the day you start your position, it's up to you to ensure that you grow your organization. Work on making your company more streamlined, fiscally sound and more respected than the day you walked in the door.

? Focus on the Big Picture

? Because boards prefer to operate at the micro level working on minor details and small projects, you'll have to work at refocusing them on larger strategic issues with abstract or undefined results. This will take effort on your part, but if you don't push them to do it, nobody will be doing the board's job.

? Ask Tough Questions

? Part of your role as an executive is to ask the tough questions, even if it risks putting your job in jeopardy. Hard-hitting questions such as, Is this in the budget? or Is this ethical? can stir up controversy, but it's better to ask than hold your silence and violate the trust to strengthen the company.

? Have a Basic Understanding of the Job and Organization

? It's simply not possible to know all the ins and outs of every position within the company. Try to have a basic understanding of key roles within your organization, and make sure to keep informed of the growth and changes within your industry through local executive societies and publications.

? Be Committed

? Who cares? You do! By demonstrating commitment to your organization, your staff, your profession and your industry, others will be inspired to stay enthusiastic about their roles and contributions to the company. If you demonstrate any sort of negativity, others will soon follow.

? Maintain Integrity

Much like leading by example, you always want to keep operations above board. Don't conduct any business in secret or that you wouldn't want the media to cover. Speak up about processes or issues that you know do not follow the company's ethical standards. While speaking up takes a great deal of courage, keeping silent can destroy your company and your career.

Mentoring: Mentoring is another good strategy, for project based teams. It acts in two ways, one way is that people learn from their good leaders. The formula is to observe their leaders and learn from them. This is the idea of transformational leadership theory; the followers become leaders for others. On the other side it helps team-members to develop their personal skills. A sales assistant can follow the steps of their team leader and become a leader or a role model for other team-members, this way it can acts as a motivating factors. Leaders acting as a mentor need to provide assurance and personal reflective space, coaches set goals, identify solutions to problems, and provide feedback on the subordinates' performance.

The focus of mentoring is to develop the whole person and so the techniques are broad and require wisdom in order to be used appropriately.

A 1995 study of mentoring techniques most commonly used in business found that the five most commonly used techniques among mentors were:

Accompanying: making a commitment in a caring way, which involves taking part in the learning process side-by-side with the learner.

Sowing: mentors are often confronted with the difficulty of preparing the learner before he or she is ready to change. Sowing is necessary when you know that what you say may not be understood or even acceptable to learners at first but will make sense and have value to the mentee when the situation requires it.

Catalyzing: when change reaches a critical level of pressure, learning can escalate. Here the mentor chooses to plunge the learner right into change, provoking a different way of thinking, a change in identity or a re-ordering of values.

Showing: this is making something understandable, or using your own example to demonstrate a skill or activity. You show what you are talking about, you show by your own behavior.

Harvesting: here the mentor focuses on "picking the ripe fruit": it is usually used to create awareness of what was learned by experience and to draw conclusions. The key questions here are: "What have you learned?", "How useful is it?".

Different techniques may be used by mentors according to the situation and the mindset of the mentee, and the techniques used in modern organizations can be found in ancient education systems, from the Socratic technique of harvesting to the accompaniment method of learning used in the apprenticeship of itinerant cathedral builders during the Middle Ages.Leadership authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner advise mentors to look for "teachable moments" in order to "expand or realize the potentialities of the people in the organizations they lead" and underline that personal credibility is as essential to quality mentoring as skill.

1. Multiple Mentors A new and upcoming trend is having multiple mentors. This can be helpful because we can all learn from each other. Having more than one mentor will widen the knowledge of the person being mentored. There are different mentors who may have different strengths.

2. Profession or Trade Mentor: This is someone who is currently in the trade/profession you are entering. They know the trends, important changes and new practices that you should know to stay at the top of your career. A mentor like this would be someone you can discuss ideas regarding the field, and also be introduced to key and important people that you should know.

3. Industry Mentor: This is someone who doesn't just focus on the profession. This mentor will be able to give insight on the industry as a whole. Whether it be research, development or key changes in the industry, you need to know.

4. Organization Mentor: Politics in the organizations are constantly changing. It is important to be knowledgeable about the values, strategies and products that are within your company, but also when these things are changing. An organization mentor can clarify missions and strategies, and give clarity when needed.

5. Work Process Mentor: This mentor can speed quickly over the bumps, and cut through the unnecessary work. This mentor can explain the 'ins and outs' of projects, day to day tasks, and eliminate unnecessary things that may be currently going on in your work day. This mentor can help to get things done quickly and efficiently.

6. Technology Mentor: This is an up-and-coming, incredibly important position. Technology has been rapidly improving, and becoming more a part of day to day transactions within companies. In order to perform your best, you must know how to get things done on the newest technology. A technology mentor will help with technical breakdowns, advise on systems that may work better than what you're currently using, and coach you through new technology and how to best use it and implement it into your daily life.

These mentors are only examples. There can be many more different types of mentors. Look around your workplace, your life, and see who is an expert that you can learn something from.

Summary

Before Leaders commit to lead others, they need to commit to themselves. Leaders need to ensure that they have qualities and characteristics of a good leader. They need to create a personal vision. They need to explore themselves first. What they can achieve with their talent, tools and time. They need to create a big picture of their vision and align it with that of organisation. Once that is down, the next step is to bring their followers on board, and align their motivation with organization's strategy. A leader with these traits and skills is able to drive the organisation. It is of this reason that organizations around the world look for these traits in the candidates for the commission.

Mentoring is another good strategy, for project based teams. It acts in two ways, one way is that people learn from their good leaders. The formula is to observe their leaders and learn from them. This is the idea of transformational leadership theory; the followers become leaders for others. On the other side it helps team-members to develop their personal skills. A sales assistant can follow the steps of their team leader and become a leader or a role model for other team-members, this way it can acts as a motivating factors. Leaders acting as a mentor need to provide assurance and personal reflective space, coaches set goals, identify solutions to problems, and provide feedback on the subordinates' performance.

In today's ultra-competitive business environment, executives and managers often have varying degrees of leadership skills and training. While obtaining comprehensive leadership skills training is the best way to integrate key leadership responsibilities into the workplace, understanding and utilizing the following tips can help you resolve conflicts, improve employee performance and lead change throughout the organization

Different techniques may be used by mentors according to the situation and the mindset of the mentee, and the techniques used in modern organizations can be found in ancient education systems, from the Socratic technique of harvesting to the accompaniment method of learning used in the apprenticeship of itinerant cathedral builders during the Middle Ages.Leadership authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Z.

Chapter 3

3.1 Appropriate methods to review current leadership requirements

Trait Theory of Leadership: Koestenbaum (2002) believe that the trait theory of leadership is based on the characteristics of many leaders both successful and unsuccessful and is used to predict leadership effectiveness. The resulting lists of trait are then compared to those of potential leaders to assess their likelihood of success of failure. Successful leaders definitely have interests, abilities and personality traits that are different from those of the less effective leaders. There are many advantages of trait theory.

Advantages of trait theories are

It gives a detailed knowledge and understanding of the leader's element in the leadership process

It serves as a standard against which the leadership traits of an individual can be assessed

It is a naturally pleasing theory

It is valid as lot of research has validated the foundation and basis of the theory.

From the above theory, I have chosen behaviour theory for Sainsbury's so that it give complete satisfaction for the employees and the company.

3.2 Plan for the development of future situations requiring leadership.

As we have already discussed that every organization makes efficient business level and corporate strategies to gain a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace relative to competition. The leadership plays the most dominant role in devising strategies for corporation to sustain a competitive advantage. Leadership develops organizational philosophy and organizational philosophy gives rise to vision and mission for the organization. The strategic objectives of an organization are set on the basis of its visions and missions.

Professionally, understanding of organizational philosophy, aligns the personal goals of an individual with organizational goals and the person realizes that, to be successful, he must reach organizational strategic goals for reaching his own personal goals because an incentive or compensation and motivation is added with this understanding of organizational philosophy. Therefore, motivation viz career development, personal goals and compensation viz rewards, promotions provide means for both kinds of goals or objective accomplishment.

Personally, having interpersonal skills and capabilities, creates awareness among the individuals that corporate culture and philosophy is important for the success of the individuals and organization. The development of self-motivation with the above concept develops a driving force that guides the individual to meet their personal goals by moving on the way of reaching strategic goals of the organization.

J-Sainsbury's (2010) mentions that Sainsbury's has continued to build across a number of fronts, reporting a 'record Christmas performance' with total sales growth of 6.0% and like-for-like sales growing by 3.6%. It also confirmed considerable progress in new store development, with 700,000 sq ft of space opened in the last quarter alone.

Furthermore, with a proven strategy now in place around growing complementary non-food and services and reaching more customers through additional channels such as online and convenience, the business is in a strong place and continues to leverage its dual `value and values' positioning in the market.

The recent management changes at Sainsbury's also signal the retailer's intention to get behind the growth opportunities that exist; with the creation of a new position as Group Development Director for Darren Shapland, while Mike Coupe's new role as Commercial Director means that he adds marketing to his previous remit of trading, IT and online. In what will be Sainsbury's first and biggest supplier communication event of 2011, the Sainsbury's Trade Briefing 2011 will give both grocery and non-food suppliers the opportunity to learn how they can work even more closely with the retailer in the year ahead.

According to Miner (2002) as a leader I have to set up a scenario planning for future requirement of my organization I have to study in deep about organization objective goal and tasks. It's about predicting or forecasting future for example in Sainsbury we have feedback from customers so I have to studies all these feedback and try to reach out at customers need. It always takes place in a workshop setting of top level management, technical support experts and organization leaders. I have to impose on the scenario because when we arrange interview with managers who later formulate and implement strategies based on scenario analysis. With the help of this top level management are required to take their standard world view and that will be ignored in the generally accepted forecast.

Some leaders and managers are not believed in scenarios they believe in forecast and judgment. Some time they know about that they fail to spot relevant change in organization. Furthermore when we talk about Globalization effect of leadership, Maxwell J. (2004) states that it must have some quality like courage, understand different culture, good work ethics, socialism, business knowledge, must have awareness of different culture because if a leader do his or her best for organization and if they have to travel around the world. For example as a leader of Sainsbury if I have to travel around some beaches of Sainsbury then I must have knowledge about the culture, ethic of good work, awareness about different countries or region culture.

In future situation people cannot be resist if the CEO or director change this theory to task oriented, staff got addicted to behavior theory so it would take a long time to them to change and get comfortable to it may be problem for those who couldn't survive in this situation.

Leadership is one of those things that's often awfully hard to define but we know when we see it we definitely know when it's missing. Shannon (2006) claim that indeed leadership is one of those area about which a huge amount is said while at the same time leaving big questions hanging in the air unanswered. But in this report as a leader of my organization I push our leadership development and training programmers to gain rigorous personal insight into what makes them tick and then, with that understanding of themselves, to stretch the boundaries. When I want to really expand my business of Sainsbury's then it is necessary to understand good leadership behavior, it is also important to learn the difference between leadership and management, gaining insight into my patterns, beliefs and rules is also important in development of leadership.

J-Sainsbury (2010) point out that J Sainsbury plc is the parent company of Sainsbury's Supermarkets Ltd, commonly known as Sainsbury's, a chain of supermarket in the United Kingdom. J Sainsbury plc is a leading UK food retailer with interests in financial services. It consists of Sainsbury's Supermarkets, Sainsbury's Local, Bells Stores, Jacksons Stores and JB Beaumont, Sainsbury's Online and Sainsbury's Bank. It employs 148,000 people. The group has an estate worth about 8.6 billion pound. Sainsbury's stands for great products at fair prices. The Group continually improves and develops its product ranges and is committed to giving customers an ever improving shopping experience. A large Sainsbury's Supermarket offers around 30,000 products 50% of these are Sainsbury's own brand including fresh produce. In addition to a wide range of quality food and grocery products, many stores offer a range of complimentary non-food products & services. Sainsbury's serves over 16 million customers a week and had 788 stores throughout the UK. Nearly 60% of our stores are in centre or edge-of-centre locations, many of these built on previously redundant sites.

According to Covey (2003) several methods and approaches are presented in leadership development. Self-awareness, the core of any development; leaders should identify their potential and recognize their strengths and weaknesses.

Leadership experience is the cornerstone of any development, where hands-on-job and difficult tasks are assigned to challenge leaders. Integrity, coaching and mentoring which provides significant feedback and advice, developmental actions are programs that depend on intensive feedback from different types of sources.




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