IL-76 technical characteristics

Analysis of specific features of plane Il-76. Basic technical descriptions and destiny of Il-76. Ilyushin as a designer of plane Il-76. Reasons of popularity of IL 76 all over the world, the tests of the military plane, features of emergency equipment.

Рубрика Военное дело и гражданская оборона
Вид отчет по практике
Язык английский
Дата добавления 26.05.2012

1.General description. Specific features

plane technical destiny

The Ilyushin Il-76 transport clearly appears as a military design. Its high wing and strong landing gear give it the ability to operate from airfields with rough or unpaved runways, while its rear loading ramp guarantees easy loading and even air dropping capabilities. On the military side, both an airborne tanker and an early warning version of the Il-76 have been developed.

Nevertheless, the Il-76 can be found in widespread commercial use as a freighter. Comparable in size to the B707 and DC-8, strong demand for medium sized freighters boosted the activities of the Il-76 after the political opening of the former Sovjet Union. Besides CIS airlines carrying both domestic and international freight on Il-76s, the aircraft found also work in Africa, the Far East and Europe. Even British, Swiss and South African airlines are to be found among the carriers operating the Il-76, albeit still under joint-venture agreements with Russian partners.

A stretched version, the Il-76MF equiped with more powerful Perm PS-90 engines, is currently being tested.

Table

Engines

4 Soloviev D-30KP, 120kN

Lenght, m

49.6

Wingspan, m

50.5

Maximum take-off mass, kg

190,000

Crew, prs

4

Ceiling, m

13,000

Range with max.payload, km

4,800

Range with max.fuel, km

5,000

Cruise speed, kmph

850

Max speed, kmph

975

Payload Capacity, kg

40,000

The aircraft was first conceived by Ilyushin in 1967 to meet a requirement for a freighter able to carry a payload of 40 tons (88,000 lb) over a range of 5,000 km (2,700 nmi; 3,100 mi) in less than six hours, able to operate from short and unprepared airstrips, and capable of coping with the worst weather conditions likely to be experienced in Siberia and the Soviet Union's Arctic regions. It first flew on March 25, 1971.

Production of Il-76s was placed in Tashkent, Uzbekistan (then a republic of the Soviet Union). Some 860 of basic transport variants were made. In 1990s modernized variants were developed (MF, TF), but were not produced in significant quantity due to financial problems of the major user, the Russian Air Force. The prototype of longer variant Il-76MF, with bigger capacity, first flew on 1 August 1995. The production ceased around 1997, and the factory since deteriorated. Some commercial aircraft were modernized to IL-76TD-90VD, starting from 2004, using new engines PS-90 to meet European noise limits[. In 2005, China ordered in Russia 34 new Il-76MD's and 4 tankers Il-78, and the factory in Tashkent completed 16 incomplete airframes. Production of the IL-76 at a new factory in Ulyanovsk in Russia, in cooperation with Tashkent works, is under consideration.

2.Accidents

12.11.1988 Aeroflot Ilyushin IL-76 78:78 Leninakan, Armenia

The aircraft crashed after colliding with a Soviet fighter jet

10.18.1989 Aeroflot Ilyushin IL-76 57:57 Nasosny, Russia SSSR-76569

10.20.1989 Aeroflot Ilyushin IL-76 25:25 Leninakan, Russia SSSR-76466

The aircraft crashed on approach. Incorrect altimeter setting used by the crew

03.27.1990 Aeroflot Ilyushin IL-76 11:11 Kabul, Afghanistan SSSR-78781

06.12.1990 Aeroflot Ilyushin IL-76 10:10 Kabul, Afganistan SSSR-8690

The aircraft was shot down.

10.02.1990 Iraqi Airways Ilyushin IL-76 130:130 Kuwait City, Kuwait

The aircraft was shot down by Kuwait after violating that country's airspace.

04.05.1996

Krasnoyarskie Avialinii Ilyushin IL-76 19:19 Petropavlovsk, Russia RA-76752

11.12.1996 Kazastan Airlines Ilyushin IL-76 27:37 Chaki Dahdri, India UN-76435

The 12th of November 1996, two planes smashed into each other while airborne. This accident happened over Charkhi Dadri, India. Saudi Arabian Flight 763, a Boeing 747-168B, crashed against Air Kazakhstand 1907, an IL-76. The Boeing was a commercial aircraft, the IL was a cargo plane. There were 349 fatalities in total. While the Boeing was taking off, the other plane was trying to land, ignoring the warnings from ground control. It than crashed into the Boeing, which disintegrated in mid-air immediately. The IL was still structurally intact, but still crashed being uncontrollable.

The aircraft collided with a Saudi 747 after the crew failed to maintain their assigned altitude. The 747 was climbing to 13,000 and the Ilyushin was instructed to descend to 14,000. The aircraft continued descending, however, and collided with the 747. Deadliest mid-air collision in aviation history.

04.18.2001 Dart Ilyushin IL-76MD 0:8 Oostende, Belgium UR-78821

Carrying 32 tons of paint and medical supplies for Guinee, the Ilyushin freighter tried to takeoff from Oostende. During the takeoff roll the crew noticed an engine fire warning and aborted. The aircraft overran the runway by 40m and came to rest in a field with its nose gear collapsed and the left wingtip touching the ground. The aircraft is presumably damaged beyond repair.

07.14.2001 Russ Air Transport Ilyushin IL-76 10:10 Moscow, Russi RA-76588

The Ilyushin 76 was being used to fly construction materials from a military airfield just outside Moscow to Norilsk. The aircraft reached an altitude of about 150 feet when it crashed about 550 yards from the end of the runway.

12.01.2001 Russian Ministry of Interior Ilyushin IL-76TD 18:18 Novaya Inya, Russia RA-76839

The aircraft's crew reported an in-flight fire af FL290, and declared intentions to perform an emergency landing. The aircraft broke up and caught fire during the landing attempt.

01.31.2003 Euro Asia Aviation Ilyushin IL-76TD 6:6 Baucau, East Timo RDPL-34141

The aircraft, on a cargo flight from Macau, China, crashed short of the runway while attempting to land in foggy weather conditions.

02.19.2003 Iranian Revolutionary Guard Ilyushin IL-76MD 275:275 SE Kerman, Iran 15-22?

The aircraft, on a flight from Zahedan to Kerman, crashed 330 feet below the peak of Sirach Mountain approximately 35nm southeast of Kerman. Weather at the time of the accident was poor.

05.08.2003 Ukrainian Cargo Airways Ilyushin IL-76MD 140:200

Kinshasa, Congo UR-UCB

The cargo aircraft was leased to the Congolese Ministry of Defense and had been operating in Congo since December, 2002. On a flight from Kinshasha to Lubumbashi, at an altitude of FL330, the aircraft's rear cargo door opened, ejecting at least 140 occupants from the plane

03.04.2004 Azov Avia Ilyushin IL-76MD 5:7 Baku, Azerbaijan UR-ZVA

The aircraft, on a cargo flight Ankara, Turkey to Kabul, Afghanistan, crashed on takeoff from Baku after a routine fuel stop. The russian-built jet reportedly climbed to an altitude of several hundred feet, before falling back to the ground and erupting in flames.

05.18.2004 Azal Avia Cargo Ilyushin IL-76TD 7:7 Urumqi, China 4K-AZ27

The aircraft, on a cargo flight from Taiyuan, China to Riga, Latvia, crashed shortly after takeoff from Urumqi after making a fuel stop. Reports indicate the aircraft had extreme difficulty becoming airborne, reaching an altitude of only around 500 feet before crashing into a farm approximately 2 miles from the airport.

02.03.2005 East/West Cargo Ilyushin IL-76TD 7:7 Khartoum, Sudan ST-EWB

The aircraft, on a cargo flight from Sharjah to Khartoum, crashed shortly before landing after the Captain reported fuel system problems. The pilot reported that he would attempt an emergency landing in the desert near Aad Babaker, 9 miles west of Khartoum, but the aircraft crashed and exploded.

03.23.2005 Airline Transport Company Ilyushin IL-76TD 8:8 Mwanza, Tanzani ER-IBR

The aircraft was on a cargo flight to Khartoum, Sudan when it disappeared from radar and crashed into Lake Victoria shortly after takeoff from Mwanza Airport.

03.23.2007 Transaviaexport Airlines Ilyushin IL-76TD 11:11 Mogadishu, Somalia EW-78849

On March 9, 2007 a company IL-76TD (EW-78826) sustained substantial damage after being hit by a missile while on approach to Mogadishu International Airport (MGQ). Later that month IL-76TD EW-78849 flew to Mogadishu to deliver equipment to inspect the damage on EW-78826. On March 23, EW-78849 was to be flown back to Minsk with a refueling stop at Djiboutu (JIB). Shortly after takeoff three missiles were fired at the plane. Reportedly one of the missiles hit the wing. Control was lost and the airplane crashed.

01.15.2009 Russian Air Force Ilyushin IL-76MD 0:31 Makhachkala, Russi RA-76827

Two Ilyushin IL-76 transport aircraft operated by the Russian military have collided at Makhachkala Airport in southern Russia, killing at least four people. IL-76MD RA-76827 (cn 1003404151) was performing its landing rollout when its right wing collided with sister-ship RA-76825 (cn 1003404136) which was entering the runway via an intersecting taxiway. 4 of the 7 crew members aboard the taxiing aircraft were killed as the cockpit was ripped away and a fire erupted, all 31 occupants of the landing aircraft survived. Visibility at the time of the crash was extremely low, with visibility reported less than 1/4 mile in freezing fog.

3.The popularity of IL 76 and its usage all over the world

The aircraft was first conceived by Ilyushin in 1967 to meet a requirement for a freighter able to carry a payload of 40 tons (88,000 lb) over a range of 5,000 km (2,700 nmi; 3,100 mi) in less than six hours, able to operate from short and unprepared airstrips, and capable of coping with the worst weather conditions likely to be experienced in Siberia and the Soviet Union's Arctic regions. It first flew on March 25, 1971.

1974 were activated the machine in the Soviet Air Force. It is a shoulder-wing monoplane, the engines is in suspension towers under the wings. The lower part of the airplane nose has sights.

Except in the Soviet Union and its succession states or is the Il-76 on Cuba, in Iraq, India, Libya and Syria was in the use. Negotiations with the VR China run and are obviously successfully final.

The most modern advancement of the wide-spread airplane carries the designation Il-76MF (TF). This model has over a loading space over increased up to 50 per cent and more efficient, however more economical engines. This makes a increased load weight of up to 52 tons and one possible around approximately a quarter increased range (approximately 4000 kilometers). So far however only prototypes exist. Exist contracts, according to which 2010 the first ten airplanes of this type is to be delivered to the Russian Air Force. On a long-term basis the Russian arsenal is to cover 100 of these machines.

Production of Il-76s was placed in Tashkent, Uzbekistan (then a republic of the Soviet Union). Some 860 of basic transport variants were made. In 1990s modernized variants were developed (MF, TF), but were not produced in significant quantity due to financial problems of the major user, the Russian Air Force. The prototype of longer variant Il-76MF, with bigger capacity, first flew on 1 August 1995. The production ceased around 1997, and the factory since deteriorated. Some commercial aircraft were modernized to IL-76TD-90VD, starting from 2004, using new engines PS-90 to meet European noise limits[1]. In 2005, China ordered in Russia 34 new Il-76MD's and 4 tankers Il-78, and the factory in Tashkent completed 16 incomplete airframes. Production of the IL-76 at a new factory in Ulyanovsk in Russia, in cooperation with Tashkent works, is under consideration.

First aircraft were delivered to the Soviet Air Force in June 1974. It next became main Soviet strategic transport aircraft. From 1976 it was operated by the Aeroflot lines. Between 1979 and 1991, the Soviet Air Force Il-76s made 14,700 flights into Afghanistan, transporting 786,200 servicemen, and 315,800 tons of freight. The Il-76 carried 89% of Soviet troops and 74% of the freight that was airlifted. Building on that experience, the bulk of the Canadian Forces equipment into Afghanistan is flown in using civilian Il-76. As of 2006, the Russian Air Force had some 200 Il-76s, less than half airworthy, and civilian users in Russia have 108.

The Il-76 is also in use as an airborne tanker, otherwise known as a refueller (Il-78, some 50 were made), and a waterbomber. Its airframe was used as a base for the Beriev A-50 'Mainstay' AWACS aircraft (some 25 were made). Still more applications have been found in Antarctic support flights and simulated weightlessness training for cosmonauts. Beriev and NPO Almaz also developed an airborne laser flying laboratory designated A-60, of which two were built, although little is known about it, as the project is still classified.

The Il-76MF(TF) is the latest development of the popular cargo aircraft and features a 6.6 meter fuselage extension which increases the size of the cargo compartment by 1.3 to 1.5 times, while new PS-90A-76 turbofans each provide 16 tons of thrust. The lower fuel consumption of the new engines increase fuel efficiency by 30%, permitting a 25% increase in range. Furthermore, the additional power increases the maximum take-off weight to 210 tonnes and the payload to 52 ton. Noise and emission levels meet ICAO standard. The Il-76MD and Il-76TD are unique in their class and they can carry cargo weighing up to 50 tonnes over ranges of up to 4000 km.

In early 2003 the Ilyushin aviation complex completed the tests of the military transport plane Il-76MF with a prolonged cockpit and an enlarged cargo cabin. Since 1995, the single existing MF prototype had performed 1,500 test flights. Beginning with 01 May 2003, the Il-76MF was authorized for series production to be supplied to the Russian Air Force. VASO, which was previously selected for refitting a first batch of four Il-76MDs with PS-90A76 engines, will start building the Il-76MFs in 2005. The Russian air force has signed for 10 aircraft for delivery by 2010, while planning to take up to 100 units eventually. The Il-76MF fuselage is extended by 21.65 feet and its PS-90A engines replace older D-30KPs.

On 28 May 2003 Colonel O.V. Barmin, Chairman of RF Ministry of Defense Governmental Commission for the PS-90A-76 engine testing, presented AVIADVIGATEL leaders with a preliminary conclusion on the PS-90A-76 engine conformity to the requirements of the Ministry of Defense. The document is signed by Colonel-General V.S. Mikhailov, Air Forces Commander-in-Chief, and accords the right for engine mass-production. The PS-90A-76 will power new IL-76MF and IL-76TF aircraft; besides, it will be used to re-engine mass-produced IL-76MD and IL-76TD. At that time re-engining of two aircraft at Tashkent factory and one aircraft at Voronezh factory was underway.

However, the mass production of IL-76 family at TAPO in early 2000s fell into serious problems. This is mainly due to reductions in the factory: If at the end of the 1980's in the TAPO employed 50 thousand people, by 2005 it was less than 10 thousand This has affected the performance of a number of contracts. In particular, for a year and a half was delayed assembly of three Il-76MD-90 for the manufacture on the basis of their long-range radar detection aircraft A-50EI for India. Only in January 2008 (instead of summer 2006), the first of three cars went to Israel to install its Phalcon radar and onward transmission to the Indian Air Force. According to a September 2005 contract between Rosoboronexport and China's Defense Ministry, worth $1.5 billion, Russia was supposed to deliver 34 Il-76 Candid medium-range military transport aircraft and four Il-78 Midas aerial refueling tankers. Delivery was planned for 2008-2012. The first deliveries under the contract were due to begin in 2007, but in March 2006, Uzbekistan's Tashkent Chkalov Aircraft Association, the manufacturer of the aircraft, refused to sign a production contract with Rosoboronexport at the contract price. The Tashkent plant had no large orders in the late 1990's and was without significant subsidies, and thus was unable to fulfill an agreement. According to TAPO, the real cost of assembling 38 aircraft was more than $ 400 million more than the contract price agreed with Beijing. As a result, the agreement was delayed, and Beijing suspended negotiations on this and several other military contracts with Russia.

Since then, the Tashkent-based company has become part of Russia's United Aircraft Corporation, and the planes will now be assembled at an aircraft manufacturing plant in Ulyanovsk in central Russia, the official said. In September 2008 it was reported that Russia will continue negotiations on a contract to deliver 34 transport planes and four aerial tankers to China earlier frozen due to a disagreement over prices. "We are returning to the contract and renegotiating the price of these planes," Mikhail Zavaliy, a Rosoboronexport official told reporters at an air show in the Krasnodar Region.

Following this, the Russian government issued an order to transfer the production of IL-76 family in Russia: 25 December 2006 was a contract signed between Russia and Minpromenergo MAK Ilyushin. The program decided to allocate from the state budget until 2009, 6.4 billion rubles. Coordinator of the project was MAK Ilyushin. Final assembly takes place in Ulyanovsk ZAO Aviastar-SP, wing at OAO Voronezh joint-stock aircraft Society (VASO), the landing gear chassis at Samara plant Aviaagregat. TAPO will also be retained production of components for IL-76.

The Il-76 series has proven quite popular, and some 960 total aircraft had been built by 2008, with production still underway. The Russian-built aircraft from the "Aviastar-SP" are scheduled for 2010, with the Ulyanovsk plant to produce ten IL-76 aircraft annually by 2012.

An Il-78 leads an aerial formation during the Victory Day parade over Moscow, Russia.

The aircraft was first conceived by Ilyushin in 1967 to meet a requirement for a freighter able to carry a payload of 40 tons (88,000 lb) over a range of 5,000 km (2,700 nmi; 3,100 mi) in less than six hours, able to operate from short and unprepared airstrips, and capable of coping with the worst weather conditions likely to be experienced in Siberia and the Soviet Union's Arctic regions. It first flew on March 25, 1971.

Production of Il-76s was placed in Tashkent, Uzbekistan (then a republic of the Soviet Union). Some 860 of basic transport variants were made. In 1990s modernized variants were developed (MF, TF), but were not produced in significant quantity due to financial problems of the major user, the Russian Air Force. The prototype of longer variant Il-76MF, with bigger capacity, first flew on 1 August 1995. The production ceased around 1997, and the factory since deteriorated. Some commercial aircraft were modernized to IL-76TD-90VD, starting from 2004, using new engines PS-90 to meet European noise limits. In 2005, China ordered in Russia 34 new Il-76MD's and 4 tankers Il-78, and the factory in Tashkent completed 16 incomplete airframes. Production of the IL-76 at a new factory in Ulyanovsk in Russia, in cooperation with Tashkent works, is under consideration

Picture

Operational history

First aircraft were delivered to the Soviet Air Force in June 1974[1]. It next became main Soviet strategic transport aircraft. From 1976 it was operated by the Aeroflot lines. Between 1979 and 1991, the Soviet Air Force Il-76s made 14,700 flights into Afghanistan, transporting 786,200 servicemen, and 315,800 tons of freight. The Il-76 carried 89% of Soviet troops and 74% of the freight that was airlifted.Building on that experience, the bulk of the Canadian Forces equipment into Afghanistan is flown in using civilian Il-76. As of 2006, the Russian Air Force had some 200 Il-76s, less than half airworthy, and civilian users in Russia have 108[3].

The Il-76 is also in use as an airborne tanker, otherwise known as a refueller (Il-78, some 50 were made), and a waterbomber. Its airframe was used as a base for the Beriev A-50 'Mainstay' AWACS aircraft (some 25 were made). Still more applications have been found in Antarctic support flights and simulated weightlessness training for cosmonauts. Beriev and NPO Almaz also developed an airborne laser flying laboratory designated A-60, of which two were built, although little is known about it, as the project is still classified.

5.Emergency equipment on board

Landing on water

Water landing subjects skill of the pilot to as much as possible rigid test. Contrary to a popular belief water "does not soften" blow of a sitting down aircraft. Owing to the physical characteristics it practically is not compressed, and in relation to the plane falling on it with speed of several hundreds of kilometres per hour, behaves the same as runway concrete. Only unlike concrete the water table never happens ideally equal.« Having hooked »for a wave, the plane can be scattered almost instantly on fragments not more largely several tens centimetres. Waves do almost impossible successful landing to the sea or other open water table. At modern "overland" planes is besides one design feature, disturbing it is good to them "to float". Engines on liners of last generations, as a rule, settle down under a wing. At the slightest error of the pilot they "cling" water and, at least, come off, and at worst ruin all plane.

Emergency exit

Parachutes are in seats (Il-76Md ). Crewmen "sit" on them literally. Behind an armchair of the commander there is a hatch of mine emergency exit, it passes downwards through all nose part of the plane. Crew, having put on protective helmets (ЗШ), should jump there headfirst, (that in a real life was possible only on trainings).

Fire cases

In loading of cargo, warming up of engines and launch when in tanks is the fuel greatest quantity, is possible fire occurrence at fuel leak as a result of defects of the design and systems, short circuits in an electric equipment, collisions with planes and other barriers, and also influences of the SMALLPOX.

Volume of fuel which can pour out on ВПП in case of damage of fuel tanks of the plane, will depend on following factors: sizes of damage and its site, quantity of fuel

In the damaged tanks of the plane, pressure sizes in the account tanks, created by pumps (depends on power setting, the maximum 0,45 kg/sm2), temperatures of fuel and external air, humidity and other.

The quantity of fuel which can be in fuel tanks of the plane, depends on it is modification, weights of transported loading, type ВПП imposing restriction on the maximum take-off weight, needed range of flight.

Parameters of distributing of fuel on ВПП, generally, will be defined by its type, a condition of surface (presence of damages, cracks, having chopped off etc.), presence of snow, water, ice, any pollution which have been melted off and destroyed designs of the plane, fuel characteristics (type, a roughness, viscosity, temperature, presence of additional impurity etc.), speed of movement of aircraft , presence of drainages near to flood and a number of other factors.

In fire development explosion of fuel tanks, as a result of heating of fuel to a bale - is possible, pressure increases in tanks and decrease rigid characteristics of a material of tanks. At explosion heated fuel the fuel part instantly evaporates, other fuel scatters on the considerable

Distance, increasing a fire area. Values of these areas are not known. For comparison it is possible to show that at explosion during a fire in 50-t of the railway tank with gasoline a fire area has made ? 350 м2, and a fire area at flood of inflammable liquids of one tank reached to 1450 м2.

In a kind of uncertainty of a configuration and the sizes of the area of burning at a plane fire in the various conditions at the present stage of researches it is expedient to accept the most dangerous mode of burning. In this case the fire will occur on the area of a projection of tanks of fuel of the plane (S?160 м2), that is fuel follows from tanks in such quantity which can burn out from the area 160 м2. At following assumptions are accepted:

· Explosions of fuel tanks does not occur (in tanks the system superfluous works pressure);

· ВПП concrete and the poured fuel is not absorbed in surface ВПП;

· The cargo cabin till the moment of the beginning of a fire is not damaged;

Fire extinguishing means are not applied because of failure of the basic systems of aircraft as a result of failures and (or) incapacity of crew of the aircraft. From experience of air field fire-fighting crews it is known that if plane suppression begins later 5 minutes of a fire to extinguish a fire it is not possible.

Referrence List

1. Повзник Я.С. и др. Пожарная тактика в примерах, М., 1992.

2. Башкирцев М.П. и др. Основы пожарной теплофизики, М., 1978.

3. Волков О.М. Пожарная безопасность резервуаров с нефтепродуктами, М., 1984

4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilyushin_Il-76

5. http://www.vremya.ru/2009/6/46/221155.html

6. TransAVIAexport official memorial website

7.http://story.malaysiasun.com/index.php/ct/9/cid/b8de8e630faf3631/id/236720/cs/1/

8. http://www.alpary.net/il76-spec4.html

9. http://avia.claw.ru

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