The types of extracurricular work in approach of foreign language
The purpose and psychology-pedagogical aspects of extracurricular work on a foreign language. Requirements to extracurricular work. Forms of extracurricular educational work on a foreign language. Using the Internet in extracurricular work on English.
1. The role of extracurricular works in foreign language at school
1.1 The purpose and psychology-pedagogical aspects of extracurricular work on a foreign language
1.2 Principles of the organization of extracurricular work on a foreign language
1.3 Requirements to extracurricular work
2. The types of extracurricular work in approach of foreign language
2.1 Forms of extracurricular educational work on a foreign language
2.2 Facultative employment, as a kind of extracurricular work at school
2.3 Use the Internet in extracurricular work on English language
2.4 Used extracurricular activities during my practical work
extracurricular foreign language
Extracurricular work on a foreign language has the big general educational and developing value. This work not only depends and expands knowledge of a foreign language, but also promotes expansion of a culturological outlook of pupils, development of their creative activity, esthetic taste and, as consequence, raises motivation to study language and culture of other country.
Necessity of constant perfection of system and formation practice is caused by the social changes occurring in a society. Questions improvement of quality of formation and level of good breeding of the person and remain priority in a modern technique of teaching of a foreign language.[3,151] Object of the research: Teaching process of English language at school. Subject of the research: the role of extracurricular works in the process of foreign language teaching.
The work purpose : Develop and approve an extracurricular work in system of foreign language teaching. The purpose has demanded the decision of some tasks:. to give a theoretical substantiation of a design technique of training foreign language in its psychological and didactic aspects on the basis of the retrospective analysis of the scientific-theoretical literature on the given problem; to investigate and prove technology of use of a design technique at training foreign language at the closing stage of average comprehensive school ; to investigate and analyze the published pedagogical experience on the given problem ; to analyze a private experience of use of a design technique in system of educational and non- learning employment on senior steps of training foreign language, to reveal efficiency of design training as new pedagogical technology in an education system.
Methods of research:
1. Studying and the analysis of the psychology -pedagogical and linguistic scientific-theoretical literature on the given problem.
2. Conversation with teachers and pupils.
3. Supervision over activity of teachers and pupils in the course of teaching foreign language.
4. Questioning among pupils and teachers.
The organization and carrying out of extracurricular action from the teacher thin both skillful supervision and studying of interests of pupils; the account of their age and psychological features, their interests is required.
The choice of a theme of extracurricular work for this or that level of training is defined, on the one hand, by volume of a language material, on the other hand, level of general educational preparation of pupils, possibility of realization of some intersubject communications. It is necessary to use as much as possible knowledge and the abilities of pupils got by them in the course of study and participation in extracurricular work, minimum to load their learning of a new material, especially such contains unfamiliar lexical units and the grammatical phenomena.
The term paper theme has been chosen recognizing that extracurricular work has huge value for mastering by pupils of a teaching material and mastering by additional knowledge on a foreign language with use of accessible and interesting methods.
In work main objectives and problems, extracurricular work, a technique of their carrying out, the requirement to them, and also modern methods and means in carrying out of facultative employment are considered.
1. THE ROLE OF EXTRACURRICULAR WORKS ON A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING
1.1 The purpose and psychology-pedagogical aspects of extracurricular work on the foreign language
The modern school has a wide experience of carrying out of educational work on a foreign language which makes a part of uniform teaching and educational process. Extracurricular work on foreign language can be defined as system non-uniform on sense, appointment and a technique of carrying out of educational actions which fall outside the limits obligatory curriculums.
Extracurricular work on foreign language solves such problems:
improvement of knowledge, habits and the abilities got at lessons foreign language;
expansion of outlook of pupils;
development of their creative abilities, independence, esthetic tastes;
love and respect for people of the native land and the country, which language is studied.
The account of psychology-pedagogical features of training foreign language at different levels is the important factor of successful performance of these problems. The knowledge of properties of the person of this or that age gives the chance to define correctly the maintenance and the form of extracurricular activity on foreign language. [14,431]
At school pupils aspire to an all-around development of the person, profound mastering of knowledge. At this age the scientific outlook is formed, social activity increases, interest to problems of human mutual relations increases, hobbies become versatile, and the self-appraisal of the abilities decreases. The great value for young men gets dialogue with the contemporaries. Dialogue for them - an integral part of their life, an information channel and an activity kind in which process there is a formation of individual style of behavior of pupils.
It is necessary to pay attention that in the course of the organization extracurricular work on foreign language it is necessary to consider both psychological features of the person, and psychological features of collective: level of its development, degree of organizational, psychological, intellectual and emotional unity, an orientation of activity of collective on relations between its members, an emotional condition of a class during performance of problems on extracurricular work. Knowledge of psychological features of pupils - the necessary precondition of a successful choice of corresponding forms of extracurricular work, definition of the maintenance of these forms, the organizations and carrying out of extracurricular work .
Though the purposes and problems of educational and extracurricular work completely coincide, in the maintenance, the organization and forms of carrying out of last are observed essential Distinctions. The basic differences of extracurricular work : [4,152]
1. A voluntary nature of participation of pupils in extracurricular work to work unlike compulsion educational Activity. Pupils solve for themselves a question on participation in those or other kinds of out-of-class work first of all in Conformity with the interests, desires to learn something new to be engaged in language in addition with any definite purposes.
2. After-hour character of employment, which it is expressed, first, in absence of strictly fixed regulation, concerning time, a place, the form of their carrying out. The park, a museum hall, a school garden and etc. Secondly, in absence of the strict account of knowledge, skills and abilities, estimations in points can be a work venue. Check of results of extracurricular work is carried out in the form of accounting, concerts, gathering, release of wall newspapers in a foreign language and etc.
3. The big independence and initiative pupils in performance of after-hour commissions. Unlike study where the help of the teacher plays the leading part, in extracurricular work pupils show more independence, ingenuities, creativity both in performance, and in the organization of after-hour actions, in a choice of forms of the work which are equitable to interests of separate age groups of pupils, to their propensities.
1.2 Principles of the organization of extracurricular work on the foreign language
Principles of extracurricular work on foreign language - starting positions which define requirements to its maintenance, methods and organizational forms. They answer the purposes and problems of all out-of-classes work on foreign language at school and illustrate an essence of pedagogical activity of the teacher - the organizer of extracurricular work. This leading principle of the organization extracurricular work obliges the teacher in due time to find out Interest of pupils out-of-class work and language, to involve them in their interesting activity during after-hour time and by that to clear in them interest to it. This principle defines the maintenance and the extracurricular work -- it should support, deepen and develop interest to a foreign language constantly.
The basic organizational principles of extracurricular work on foreign language are voluntariness and mass character principles, a principle of the account and development of specific features and interests of pupils, a principle of communication of extracurricular work with [5,117] lessons.
The voluntariness principle consists that pupils join in extracurricular work at own will. This principle has the feature: the pupil, which itself has defined the participation in this or that kind of out-of-class activity, incurs the voluntary obligation to continue studying foreign language that will demand from it additional efforts. The mass character principle provides active participation in out-of-class actions of the greatest quantity of pupils with different level of foreign language skills. The principle of the account and development of specific features and interests of pupils provides the account in a context of activity of pupils of their private experience, interests, desires, bents, outlooks, emotionally-sensual sphere and the status of the person in collective. The principle of communication of extracurricular work with lessons first of all consists in providing unity of the practical, developing and educational purposes of extracurricular employment and lessons. It also provides communication of teaching materials which are used in extracurricular work, with a material of operating methodical complexes on foreign language.
Extracurricular work is based on possession of pupils of habits and the abilities got at lessons foreign language, therefore very important there is that pupils most full used these habits and abilities during out-of-class action. At the same time extracurricular work can positively influence educational activity of pupils on a foreign language. V.I.Shepeleva is supplemented with aforementioned principles with principles of integrated approach, enthusiasm and initiative and amateur performance development. [5,118] The integrated approach principle can provide unity and interrelation moral, esthetic, labor and physical training. Out-of-class work should bring up on a foreign language, he sincere citizen who yours faithfully concerns the country and the country which language it studies. This citizen should be fair, decent, understand people with who communicates, to respect and understand foreign language. On out-of-class actions it is necessary to impart to pupils love to fine, to learn to sing songs, to listen and understand music, it is good to make out albums, wall newspapers, to produce suits and a different requisite to performances.
The principle of development of the initiative and amateur performance provides stimulation and development in schoolboys of amateur performance and the initiative in work. In extracurricular work the teacher can give the chance to use independently to pupils the knowledge and abilities, to allow doing everything, as to preparation and carrying out of out-of-class action, were able and imperceptibly supervising over this process. Amateur performance is a basis of creativity, namely the creative satisfaction always assists in work to desire to work better, to know a foreign language more absolutely. The initiative can become a vital position of each pupil. It is necessary for teacher to induce the pupils to that they have chosen subjects and forms of extracurricular dialogue.
All above-named principles supplement each other and in a complex provide purposeful, consecutive, regular and at the same time versatile influence on development of the person.
1.3 Requirements to extracurricular work
Listed above feature and extracurricular works find the reflection in methodical requirements to their maintenance. It is possible to carry the following to such requirements:
1. Organic communication of fixed and after-hour work. This communication can be bilateral. Out-of-class work leans against work in a class. Out-of-class employment of foreign language are based, as it is known, on possession of skills and the abilities created at lessons of language, therefore it is important, that pupils used these skills and abilities probably full, at the same time improving and developing them according to foreign language features of after-hour work. Out-of-class work thus can render positive a cart-action on educational activity of pupils on foreign language.
After-hour dialogue in a foreign language of pupils comes nearer in some measure to natural motivated to use it, it can serve important to the motivation so necessary for speech practice and mastering by language. The fullest realization of this methodical requirement is possible at observance of some conditions.
2. Compulsion in performance pupils were taken by them on itself of out-of-class commissions in appropriate work kinds (for example, in mugs, mass actions). Without it performance next the third requirement is impossible.
3. Purposefulness and a regularity out-of-class studies according to features of kinds of after-hour work: weekly, daily, monthly, once in half-year, year (see about it further).
4. Mass coverage of pupils by different kinds of extracurricular works is one of means of its strengthening foreign language on pupils .
2. THE TYPES OF EXTRACURRICULAR WORK IN APPROACH OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE
2.1 Forms of extracurricular educational work on the foreign language
In the methodical literature and in school practice traditionally distinguish three forms of extracurricular work: individual, group and mass. In a basis of such distribution the sign of quantitative coverage of participants is assigned. Underlining an illegibility of concept of "mass character", V.I.Shepeleva suggests distinguishing forms of out-of-class work on foreign language to organizational-structural signs. Accordingly it carries group forms to organizational-structural forms, and individual and mass - to not structural.
Individual extracurricular work is spent with separate pupils who prepare the message or the report on the country which language is studied, about considerable dates and events, outstanding people, study verses, songs, fragments from literary works in a foreign language, produce visual aids, make out wall newspapers, albums, stands, etc. Individual work can constantly be spent or incidentally [6,207].
The group form of out-of-class work has accurate organizational structure and rather constant structure of the participants united by the general interests. To this form various mugs belong: colloquial, vocal, drama, translators, philatelists, home reading, etc. Some methodologists recommend organizing for pupils of all classes' colloquial and choral mugs, for pupils of the senior classes literary-translational and regional geographic. Have positively proved the combined mugs where different kinds of activity, for example, learning of songs and preparation of performances, home reading and viewing of filmstrips with the further discussion of the seen unite. Employment in mugs, as a rule, is spent regularly.
Mass forms of extracurricular work have no accurate organizational structure. To them carry such actions as evenings of amateur performances, festivals, competitions, carnivals, thematic evenings. These actions are spent incidentally.
On sense it is possible to allocate such forms of extracurricular work on foreign language:
2) mass media,
Each group of the specified forms provides concrete actions. Actions of competitive character, competition, game, the Olympic Games, a quiz and other. Mass media - the wall newspaper, the announcement, the bulletin, oral magazine, the digest, an exhibition-quiz, etc. Actions of cultural-mass character, the evening-holiday devoted to national traditions of native land or the country, which language is studied; the evening-portrait devoted to life and activity of known writers, Poets, composers, actors, etc.; evening-meeting with interesting people; evenings-chronicles in connection with significant events. Actions of politico-mass character: a forum, festival, press conference, solidarity fair, a space bridge and other.
In the pedagogical literature there is a concept "uniting forms of extracurricular work" [13,261]. To uniting forms carry children's and youthful clubs on interests, school museums, libraries, film studios, cinemas and clubs cheerful and resourceful. Clubs are the effective form of out-of-class work on foreign language as they unite pupils of different age and different interests, create wide space for dialogue, operate on bases of self-management and become the centers of extracurricular work at schools. Clubs have the names, emblems, positions and charters. Among schoolboys clubs of cheerful and resourceful (KVNs) which provide carrying out of interesting competitions, execution of songs, verses, solving of riddles, crossword puzzles, rebuses with a visual support in the form of posters, pictures, filmstrips use special popularity. Each command which takes part in KVN, has the motto, an emblem, a song and the form. As "homework" participants of club prepare a performance of products of known foreign writers and playwrights [7,132].
It is expedient to allocate such form of extracurricular work as Week of a foreign language at school. This form in character is mass as provides participation in it of a wide contingent of pupils, and on the structure is complex as includes a complex different in sense and the form of actions which occur during the certain period of time and are directed on realization of problems of the complex approach to education of pupils. Week of a foreign language at school as the complex form should assist the purposeful organization and ordering of all out-of-class work on foreign language in school, activization of work of circles for which Week becomes the original creative report, to formation of creative relations between pupils, teachers and parents who cooperate in the course of preparation and carrying out of Week. Week of a foreign language spend to the certain period of academic year under preliminary made program which defines the purposes, the maintenance and the form of any of its components. The subjects of actions within the limits of a Week should be interesting, informative, accessible, connected with a teaching material and to answer age features of pupils, level of their language preparation. Process of preparation and carrying out of Week foreign language passes in three stages.
I stage (preparatory) begins drawing up of the program of Week. At this stage the organizing committee in which structure teachers of a foreign language, the director of studies, representatives of student's and parental weight are selected is created.
II stage - members of organizing committee define executors of the program; will organize manufacturing of suits, a requisite, and registration of premises, exhibitions, announcements, invitations, and also preparation of necessary phonomaterials, filmstrips, films, slides. Directly preparation of pupils for performances is spent by teachers of foreign language, working individually with each pupil or with groups of pupils in mugs. During rehearsals pupils will improve the pronunciation, learn to behave on a scene, etc.
III stage is devoted results of Week. It is desirable to let out the newsletter and to inform on how there has passed the Week, what successes its participants who from pupils were most noted have reached.
As the separate form of extracurricular work on a foreign language it is possible to allocate correspondence of pupils. It has not only big educational, but also practical value as assists development of speech of pupils. Correspondence gives the chance to pupils to use practically a foreign language as means of dialogue and to receive the additional information to program themes. That correspondence assisted development not only written, but also oral speech of pupils, at sessions of a circle or club section the information in a foreign language about which it is gone in the letter listens with delight, exhibitions of letters during which time their maintenance is made comments are arranged. The organizing center of this work is "the School post office" which helps pupils with correspondence, gives foreign language the information on how correctly to issue letters (to write the address, date, etc.). Offers addresses of foreign friends which wish to correspond, provides with envelopes, marks, and advises concerning the use of a language material, characteristic dialogue for the epistolary form.[15,192]
As practice shows, kinds of extracurricular work which provide optimum results, should have such characteristics:
* informativness and pithiness which realizations of the practical and general educational purposes of extracurricular work assist;
* a communicative orientation: all kinds of extracurricular work should provide using a foreign language as with means of reception and information transfer in typical natural situations of dialogue; * situational: the overwhelming majority of kinds of extracurricular work should include "set" of situations which are a subject background and stimulus to purposeful language acts;
* orientation of problems to increase of language activity of pupils;
Emotionality of forms and ways of realization which assists increase of interest of pupils to activity speaking another language.
2.2 Facultative employment, as the kind of extracurricular works in the senior classes and their feature
By the nature facultative employment on a foreign language, on the one hand, is based on the standard program, and on the other hand, represents a link in the chain of employment pursuing the aims different from the standard program. Therefore the program of a facultative course should be under construction so that the schoolboys visiting it, didn't test boredom at usual lessons, but also facultative employment shouldn't be perceived them as certain "repetition" ("fastening") of that was studied in a class [10,98].
Accordingly, in a basis of a facultative course on foreign at unspecialized school it is desirable for language rely a principle, namely development of the maximum quantity of speech abilities on a minimum with lexical and grammatical material. In a similar situation the facultative course should be focused not so much on expansion of a dictionary and structural stock, how many on mastering by ways of speech behavior in various lively situations and at the decision of various problems. At observance of an aforementioned principle pupils not visiting facultative employment, don't feel hopelessly lagged behind from those who visits them, but last can be an example for the first for are capable to show. Are how much fuller, more various and more logical can expressing foreign language in the limits which practically aren't exceeding a program material? Hence, work over lexical and grammatical skills on facultative employment should be guided by development of flexibility of skill and its readiness for inclusion.
It is necessary to notice, however, that such approach can't be considered as universal at construction of facultative employment of any type. Here the facultative course is considered. Not putting professional purposes and suitable it is equal for city and rural school, namely - developing logicality and efficiency of dialogue in household sphere. We don't limit household sphere to purely tourist communicative situations of type «How to order at restaurant a dinner» or «How to learn road to hotel». The wide scale of human mutual relations of habitual employment, hobbies, and perceptions of the various parties of the validity means. At material selection the positive role is played by a thematic principle as he promotes lexicon ordering. But we understand this principle widely: as a basis for an establishment between thematic communications that words not «froze in a context». For example, the theme «Carrying out of vacation» is connected with themes "Tourism", "Playing sports", «Survey of sights», etc. Differently, our approach is defined by not so much subjects, how many a problematic. Sometimes specificity of formed ability forces and to refuse at all from thematic unity. For example, ability to give to a definition to household concepts, on the contrary, assumes recollection lexicon from the most various spheres of activity and knowledge: from kitchen utensils to exotic animals. Besides, there can be problems which difficultly rank as any traditionally allocated school theme: for example, you respect what people; you easily forgive what lacks, and what aren't present; you wait for what relation to from associates; as it is better to communicate with friends - in letters or by phone, etc.
Any employment within the limits of facultative employment of the given type should be directed on formation of abilities of oral dialogue. Accordingly, employment can be classified depending on the purpose approximately as follows:
- "The monotarget" employment devoted to development of abilities of the monologic statement or dialogical dialogue;
- "The polytarget" employment combining development of abilities of the monologic statement or dialogical dialogue or with development of abilities of reading (audition), or with perfection of lexical or grammatical skills of registration of the statement.
Thus, the orientation on perfection of skills means that employment can be under construction on a material with prevalence either lexical, or grammatical aspect. Thus the grammatical phenomena are generalized so that to provide certain set of various communicative intentions on employment. If it is simultaneously fulfilled several designs such communicative intentions where all these grammatical phenomena equally would be necessary for achievement of the speech purpose and if there is a work on one difficult grammatical phenomenon in speech tasks it is necessary to show variability of its application for realization of several communicative intentions steal up.
Main principles on which, both construction of facultative employment is based on a school lesson, and on employment in high school: comprehension of the purpose and ways of its achievement and results, interrelation of kinds of speech activity, the maximum communicativeness of training and smooth transition to speech practice, the prevention of errors at the expense of correct sequence of tasks etc.
Concerning employment stages it is necessary to notice that as we don't enter the extra program grammatical phenomena or essentially new lexical themes, the stage of acquaintance with a language material, as a rule, doesn't happen detailed, developed and doesn't occupy a considerable part of employment. And still this stage can sometimes take an important place in employment structure. In some measure necessity of acquaintance is caused lack of the textbook operating throughout many years on English language for unspecialized schools. However at any basic textbook it is necessary to generalize the studied material at other qualitative level, from the point of view both telling, and perceiving the information (for example, generalization of ways of prompting to action, expressions of obligation, the message on the made action, ways of decoding of homonymic grammatical designs). Such generalizations shouldn't overload a facultative course. As to speech abilities acquaintance with them just happens on facultative employment, rather than at the usual lesson focused in a greater degree on carrying over concerning simple speech actions from a native language, than on development of difficult intellectual abilities, such, as a definition, definition of logicality or objectivity of the statement etc. is more often
So, in connection with modest enough place of a stage of acquaintance in structure of facultative employment there is a possibility to give more attention to communicative problems, than at a usual lesson. If the new difficult material speaks a lesson where it is entered and in detail, it is possible to be limited sometimes to be conditional-communicative tasks under rigidly set scheme each facultative employment includes variety of originally speech tasks.
Thus the preference is given to tasks not so much in a role-playing game, how many in expression of own opinions. The matter is that training role-playing games stimulate internal motivation insufficiently, and actually speech, creative role-playing game demands huge preparation on which there is no time at one-two hours of facultative employment per week. But expression of the opinion can learn on each employment, and not only at a stage of speech practice, but also at a training stage.
One of the primary goals of facultative employment - development of the person of pupils. In the course of learning of foreign language the intelligence structure is improved: various kinds of memory and thinking, various intellectual operations, and first of all, such, as comparison, generalization, classification. Acceptance of the semantic decision. From here the problem of formation of essentially new abilities, and not just carrying over of the abilities which are available in a native language also follows, i.e. the practical purpose on facultative employment is inseparable from the developing purpose.
Pupils, as a rule, visit no facultative employment not more often one-two times a week (at the best this dual employment) and frequently have homework's application of the diversified support which simultaneously would exclude possibility of language errors is very important, would prompt a language material and would give a maximum of possibilities for self-expression, for display of as to the person.
Difficulties of the organization of independent work on a house foreign language are connected with absence of the special manual. Therefore it is very important, that pupils still had so-called "abstract" of employment in which the employment purpose is formulated, sequence of instructions and the language material with which it is necessary to work is specified, and also samples of performance of new kinds of tasks are given. It helps them to recreate, specify, add, and change the statement once again. Besides, distribution of abstracts helps to strengthen and interthematic communications, i.e. on the subsequent employment as required returning pupils to language units and vital problems which were offered on the previous employment.
Considering distinctions in language preparation, psychological features and interests of pupils in each group, for maintenance of internal motivation on facultative employment still more value in comparison with lessons is got by an individualization of tasks. In the abstract it can express in different level of problematical character. More truly, tasks can assume different degree of independence in language registration of the statement in the presence of a problem in each variant of the task.
Facultative course, possessing concern autonomy, makes with a standard course a single whole. It is spent in parallel with a basic course and consequently the teacher doesn't have special need to outline the intermediate purposes though the account of in addition developed abilities should be conducted as there is a possibility in a greater degree to involve interrelation of different kinds of speech activity.
2.3 Use the internet in extracurricular work on English language
Now use of means of a network the Internet in extracurricular work became very popular and accessible.
So, what kinds of activity the pupil in a network during after-hour time for the purpose of the best mastering by a foreign language can carry out?
Individual work on liquidation of blanks in knowledge of pupils, formation or perfection of grammatical, lexical skills.
With that end in view it is very useful to suggest for children to use or described above program English Club net, English-to-Go, other, courses of remote training on domestic sites  or compact discs available in a media library. Such work can be spent and from the house computer. Now in a network it is a lot of possibilities to organize individual independent activity of schoolboys on perfection of that or other knowledge, abilities, and skills in mastering by a foreign language.
Compact discs let out now can render the big help to children. However, not all they are equally effective, as is far not in all advertized courses the methodical party of a course is thought well over and realized.
It is thought, the most successful can recognize course Reward Inter Native prepared by firm “New disk” on the basis of a well-known series of textbooks of Sajmona Grinholla with the same name. The course provides elements of remote training.
Dynamic English - a course on 6 compact discs of 3 levels of complexity (beginner Basic, Upper Basic) on two disks for each level. There is a soundtrack and animations, exercises of interactive character lexical, grammatical are provided. Built in system Shuffle Level allows to adjust automatically level of complexity of tasks depending on answers of the pupil. There is a built in program of control. It is a series of courses (Dynamic English, Dynamic Classics, and Business English).
Design activity of pupils is a widespread kind of work with use the Internet.
It is the most effective activity of pupils during after-hour time. However at once it is necessary to make a reservation that its efficiency to the full depends on the organization and coordination from teachers. So than so design activity is attractive to educational process on a foreign language? The answer is quite obvious. Only by means of a network the Internet it is possible to create the original language environment and to set the task of formation of requirement for learning of foreign language on the basis of intensive dialogue with native speakers, work with the authentic literature of the most different genre, audition of original texts performed by native speakers. It, perhaps, the most effective possibility of formation sociocultural the competence on the basis of dialogue of cultures. Schoolboys and teachers can find any information necessary for the project in the Internet: About museums and their exhibits worldwide, the statistical data on the diversified questions, the information on current events in different corners of the world and reaction of people to these events, the information on an ecological situation in different areas of the world, about national holidays etc. It is possible to have a talk in a mode on-line (in a mode of real time), using IRC (Internet Relay Chat) with contemporaries or with experts of an interesting trade from the different countries of the world. That is why joint international projects with native speakers are so attractive to learning of foreign languages. The Olympic Games, quizzes in a foreign language can bring also the mite in foreign language perfection, but they concern, basically, the advanced pupils. In projects participate all.
Projects can be carried out, both at a lesson, and during after-hour time. Design activity is most effective, if it manages to be connected with a program material, considerably expanding and deepening knowledge of pupils in the course of work on the project. At the heart of the project any problem always lies. The project shouldn't be limited to a theme. The significant problem is necessary let small, but. Only thus it is possible to switch attention of schoolboys from the statement form to the maintenance.
The thought of children in this case is occupied by how to solve a problem, what to find rational ways of its decision where to find the convincing arguments proving correctness of the chosen way. At the heart of speech activity as we know, the thought lies. Language is means of formation and a thought formulation. If the problem dares in joint activity with native speakers, there is no possibility to discuss this problem in a native language. It is necessary to inform the thoughts to partners and precisely to understand a course of their thoughts. Work on problem discussion, search of its decision is better to spend all at a lesson in groups so that children conducted all discussions, discussions in a foreign language, prepared a material in common, casting for each participant of the project from our party. Much depends on a problem which is offered for the decision. If the problem appears interesting, both for our schoolboys and for schoolboys from other countries there are suitable conditions for the organization of the international telecommunication project. Search of partners under the problem - business hard, persistence, time here is necessary. If foreign partners in which the given problem has interested are found, it is necessary to get acquainted, first of all. For this purpose it is accepted to exchange so-called representation letters. It is possible to use web-pages of the schools or even personal pages, having informed potential partners of the address. Then it is possible to get acquainted more close, to see each other in photos, to show the school etc. After acquaintance it is possible to agree about subgroups-partners from each party, having distributed between these subgroups of a problem of the general project. Further start discussion of the participatory action plan, terms of intermediate results and total, ways of registration of results. Agree in case of need about on-line chats, conferences. It is possible to create a joint web-page on which total materials of the joint project, results of discussions will take place. All necessary letters, materials are discussed in a class. The project goes as though in a class and out of it, on the Internet. Letters of partners also can be discussed in groups at lessons.
It is one possible variant. Can be, certainly, and purely out-of-class projects, especially, if children join any international project offered in networks. Such projects will always be organized round any interesting problem. If the offered problem is interesting to group of schoolboys or even for separate schoolboys, it is necessary to stimulate them to individual or group design activity during after-hour time. But also in this case it is impossible to release them in free swimming. Control and the necessary help should appear regularly. Otherwise, if the pupil doesn't see sincere interest of the teacher, parents in its activity, the enthusiasm quickly dies away. Affairs at our children and so suffices, and design activity is rather labor-consuming.
Intersubject projects, also organized round a certain problem are very interesting. It can be the international projects on ecology, geography, demographic projects, historical, creative, the avenue but if they international, means they should be spent in a foreign language. Anyway in design activity with native speakers the foreign language acts in the basic function - means of formation and a formulation of thought, dialogue means. And Dialogue occurs to carriers of other culture which language is studied by schoolboys. Hence, mastering by language naturally occurs on sociocultural a background. Children not only solve a problem in common, they get acquainted with national and cultural features of the countries-partners, learn weight of interesting things about each other which at times and didn't guess. Also that is especially important and valuable, they learn to understand each other and to realize that fact that all of us we live on one planet what to divide to us there is nothing. Means it is necessary to learn to respect each other. Now design activity became the most popular kind of activity of schoolboys in networks. At the same time, as it often happens, when something becomes fashionable, the project calls anything you like. The teacher suggests collecting a material on native land - the project, to let out the newspaper - the project, to organize evening of English language - the project. If to address to semantics of a word, that, probably, they and are right. But from the pedagogical point of view, us ways, ways of achievement of the purposes of education and development interest. For this reason we have addressed in due time to a method of projects, understanding as it a set of methods, the operations directed on the decision of a certain research problem, it is a way of achievement of the didactic purpose through detailed working out problems (technology) which should come to the end with quite real, tangible practical result. It is possible to formulate the basic requirements to use of a method of projects in a foreign language course:
1. Presence significant in the research, creative plan of the problem demanding integrated knowledge, research search for its decision (for example, research of history of occurrence of celebrating of various holidays in the English-speaking countries )
2. St. Patrick's Day, Thanksgiving Day, Halloween, Christmas, Mothers' Day, etc; the organization of travel to the different countries, comparison of features of such organization for travel to our country and abroad; family problems; a problem of free time at youth; a problem of arrangement of the house; a problem of relations between generations; the problem of the organization of sports actions, is a lot of others);
3. The practical, theoretical importance of prospective results (for example, the report in corresponding services about a demographic condition of the given region, the factors influencing this condition, the tendencies traced in development of the given problem; joint release of the newspaper, the almanac with reporting from a place of events; the program of a tourist route with all details, concerning features of a foreign trip; the plan of arrangement of the house, park, a site, a lay-out and apartment arrangement, avenue);
4. Independent (individual, pair, group) activity of pupils at a lesson or during after-hour time.
5. Structurization of a substantial part of the project (with instructions of stage-by-stage results and cast).
6. Use of research methods: definition of the problem, research problems following from it, promotion of a hypothesis of their decision, discussion of methods of research, registration of the end results, the analysis of the received data, summarizing, updating, conclusions (use during joint research of a method of "brainstorming", "a round table", creative reports, project protection, avenue).
From here can be defined both development cycles and project carrying out (its structure):
1. The purposes of the project with definition of knowledge, abilities, skills which schoolboys as a result of work on the project should get.
2. The presentation of the situations, allowing revealing one or several problems on discussed subjects.
3. Promotion of hypotheses of the decision of the revealed problem (brain storm). Discussion and a substantiation of each of hypotheses.
4. Discussion of methods of check from the accepted hypotheses in small groups (in each group on a hypothesis), discussions of possible sources of the information for check of the put forward hypothesis.
5. Discussion of registration of results.
6. Work in groups over search of the facts, the arguments confirming or denying a hypothesis.
7. Protection of projects (hypotheses of a solution of a problem) each of groups with opposing from all present.
Promotion of new problems. It is important to pay attention of teachers to the fact of an exclusive role of the international telecommunication projects for mastering by a foreign language.
At work with the computer activity of pupils has character of individual activity is more often, especially, if the pupil works not in a school media library, and at home, behind own house computer.
In a media library behind one computer some pupils often work, and work in common. That really one of them carries out information search in a network, isn't so the important fact. The main thing that they in common discuss a problem and possible ways of search of the necessary information. To expect that this discussion occurs in a foreign language - naivety top, certainly, in a native language. But the information necessary for them for those or other purposes of the project should be in a foreign language or it is supposed to use it in the task in a foreign language.
2.4Used extracurricular activities during my practical work
Pictionary is a great game that is perfect for adapting into a classroom English activity. There are a number of different ways to play. Make 4 sets of 10 cards (4 sets of 5 is fine if you don't feel you need so many), set 1 is for easy words, set 2 for medium, set 3 for difficult and set 4 for very difficult. Write words of your choice on the cards depending on the level of the students you teach.
I tended to use objects for the easier categories and ramped it up to verbs and adjectives for the more difficult categories. Here are some examples of the words I used:
Easy: book, car, tree
Medium: grass, snow, beach
Difficult: to dream, burn, cut
Very difficult: pollute, clean, dump
Split the class into around 2 or 3 groups and have a student from the first group come up and choose a category, with 1 point on offer for a successful 'easy' drawing up to 4 for a successful 'very difficult' drawing.
Once the student sees the word they have 1 minute to draw on the blackboard, remembering to follow Pictionary rules such as giving no verbal clues and not drawing letters and numbers. The remaining students in the team try to guess the word (while the rest of the class stay silent).
Continue the process with the other teams while keeping track of the scores. To spice things up a little feel free to let other teams guess the word if the original team are unsuccessful in their 1 minute, giving them the chance to take each other's points.
Guess the Action
Help ESL students remember a range of important English nouns and verbs with this fun classroom activity where they attempt to guess the actions performed by their classmates.
The game plays like a simple version of charades where a student receives a secret word and tries to act it out to the other members of the team.
Before you start you'll need to make small pieces of paper with a range of secret words written on them. You can use any type of words you want but I find verbs are best for this type of game so that's what I'll be using in this example.
To make the game interesting you can have easy words (worth 1 point), medium words (worth 2 points) and hard words (worth 3 points).
Here are some examples of words I use:
Easy (1 point): Eating, sleeping, running, singing, flying, cleaning
Medium (2 points): Laughing, studying, looking, throwing, talking, cooking
Hard (3 points): Thinking, pointing, lifting, climbing, opening
Split the class into teams and ask a student to choose easy, medium or hard. Give them around 20 seconds to act out the word in front of their group (while other teams stay quiet). Continue the process with the other teams while keeping track of the scores and see who wins!
You might like to let other teams guess the word if the original team are unsuccessful in their 20 seconds, giving them the chance to earn extra points.
Who Wants to be a Millionaire?
You can probably guess from the title what this ESL activity is all about. Split your classroom into groups (I use 3 groups of 6-7 but it can be easily changed to suit how many students you have) and then have them take turns answering true or false questions until they choose to stop and 'bank' their money or until they get a question wrong and lose everything. If there are only 20 (3 x 7) then take out maybe the 500 tenge and 100000 tenge
Ask the first student a question (usually very easy) and if they get it right then move on to the second student in the group and ask if they would like to continue or 'bank' the 500 tenge, the questions I use slowly get harder but in general they are relatively easy (it's more fun that way, plus they're 50/50 so they always have a chance). During these questions they aren't allowed any help from other students (unless they're using a lifeline, which I'll get to soon).
A few examples of the easy questions I use :
Doraemon has no ears - True
There were 5 members of the Beatles - False
Anpanman's weakness is water - True
I have 4 arms - False
We live on the moon - False
The sun is hot - True
I have around 50 ready to ask them but I don't find it hard to think of new one's on the fly if I run out during the lesson.
To add to the fun, give them 2 lifelines that they can choose to use at any stage during their team's turn (they can only use each lifeline once per round).
Phone a friend - Call someone else in the team and ask them for help (feel free to make them pretend that they're actually talking on a phone for laughs).
Ask the group - Let the team discuss what they think is the best answer.
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