Methods of teaching foreign languages from an early age
Process of learning a foreign language with from an early age. The main differences between the concepts of "second language" and "foreign language" by the conditions of the language environment. Distinguish different types of language proficiency.
Karaganda State University named after E.A.Buketov
28 Universitetskaya street, Karaganda, 100028, Kazakhstan
Methods of teaching foreign languages from an early age
G. N. Akbayeva
K. D. Bekbatyrova
This article is written for students of the Faculty of Foreign Languages of pedagogical skills , teachers of foreign languages in secondary and higher educational institutions of various types and range of people who care about the problems of teaching foreign languages . We think that the material presented will help the students - future teachers of foreign languages in mastering course content and methodology will be a tool to stimulate research and teaching. Hopefully, the article will be useful not only for students , but also teachers of various educational institutions and all those who are interested in methods of teaching foreign languages from an early age .
In order to properly build the process of learning a foreign language with from an early age , you must know that there is a foreign language to be understood by learning / language acquisition , language learning . The concept of " foreign language" as a subject arose during the second half of the XVIII century as a result of growth in the number of scientific publications in national languages . Since that time, began to study foreign languages with focus on practical problems associated with the need to be able to read books in the languages of different nations. Foreign Language - the language when in an environment almost no or no its carriers . A foreign language is understood language that is being studied in the educational process in vitro and which is used along with their native language in everyday communication.
To distinguish between the concepts of " native language " and " second language " in science there are various criteria . The optimal criterion is the origin. According to the criterion of origin native language - is the mother language of the mother begins to communicate with the child since its birth . G. E. Utebalieva defines native language as "an individual who has mastered in early childhood as a primary means of communication with the real part of the native language and uses it as a tool of their cognitive development "  . Native language - a language in which the child began to speak and said his first word (A. A. Leontiev) . The notion of "mother tongue" when choosing the language of instruction in educational institutions adequately replaced by the concept of "basic functional language", that is the language which the 5 -6 -year-old child is fluent . In a multicultural society, the basic functional languages can be more than one. This makes difficult the separation of languages for native and non-native. 
Second language can be produced in two variants: a foreign language and second language. Foreign language study is its natural conditions of existence. Serves as a second language along with their native or after the second means of communication. Under a second language means the language generated in vivo as a result of its operation to communicate with speakers of the language. 
Second language - a language that is usually absorbed in the social environment, where it is a real means of communication . He widely employed in the society in which the child develops. In sociolinguistic terms, this language of the majority or official language.
Thus, the main differences between the concepts of "second language" and "foreign language" by the conditions of the language environment is the natural language environment and artificial language environment (apart from the target language country), as well as the nature of the process of language acquisition: manageable teacher-led , uncontrollable nature of language acquisition and the combined character of second language acquisition .
However, this difference is conditional, and set clear boundaries between them is difficult. Foreign language and second language may in appropriate circumstances easily "jump" into each other. For example, the English language in Kazakhstan - is a foreign language, and for immigrants who are learning the language as a means of everyday communication in England, he became the second language. Immigrants who left England and returned to his country, English transits from the second rank in the category of DICE . It gives the basis for all existing differences between foreign language and the second language is not an absolute these concepts. Since under the subject methods talking about ways to improve the training system foreign language, it would be better to look for differences between them at the level of the concepts of "controlled" language acquisition and "uncontrolled" language acquisition. Controlled process of language acquisition is associated with concepts such as language teaching and language learning . By definition IV Rakhmanov , " learning a foreign language - is" a process of systematic and consistent messages teacher imparting knowledge and skills in foreign languages , it is a process of active and informed students of their assimilation " . From this definition, it is obvious that the process of learning - is a bilateral process , including training activities foreign language teacher and student learning activities ( learning the language ) . This work aims at studying / language acquisition. Between the concepts of " language learning " and " language acquisition " there are significant differences . The notion of "learning" language is broader than the concept of " mastery " language . The process of language acquisition may be unintentional , it is characterized by an unconscious , intuitive language acquisition . It is constructed according to the laws of mastering their own language. Language learning is a process of deliberate , involving primarily the purposeful use of language and assimilation theory , rules of linguistic resources . Of course, you can study and native language, which the child already owns almost what happens when he comes to school . Language learning is the ultimate goal of mastering the language.
Depending on the conditions in which the age at which language learners and what we want to target , distinguish different types of language proficiency : the first possession , the native language - monolingualism ; ownership from the beginning of development of speech in two languages simultaneously - Bilingualism , speak several languages - multilingualism ; possession of second language ( bilingualism ) along with the first ( native ) , where the first language is either completely or partially formed, and foreign language in a variety of environments learning: in a natural language environment and beyond. In relation to domestic conditions in school can talk about training or DICE (the latter type of language ) , or on the development of bilingualism : language national republic ( national administrative area in which the student resides ) and native language, or on multilingualism : native language, national language , foreign language (s) . While bilingualism may be children and adults . As for DICE , the conditions of learning in secondary school ( high school ) we can talk about the development of artificial bilingualism . teaching language age
Geopolitical and economic situation of our country gives reason to believe that for the majority of students studying conditions DICE are "artificial" nature . In this case, we can only talk about the controlled study of Linguistics in isolation from the language environment , that is, we can talk about language learning , which is characterized by systematic and planned , specially selected and methodically interpret educational content , the presence of instructional techniques and methods of work , as well as certain limited time . To the learning process has been effective , it is necessary to know what kind of laws occurs mastering a foreign language school . As noted above , the process of learning a foreign language includes teacher training activities and student learning activities . Therefore, the methodological problems should be considered in two aspects are closely interrelated : from the perspective of teacher training activities and in terms of individual student learning activities on mastering their subject "foreign language ."
Any training is to transfer knowledge and skills formation . Organized such knowledge and skills acquired in the presence of a planned learning process. For such a complex system as a learning process to function effectively , it is necessary to know its laws . Laws of learning together and make learning theory or technique . Technique is a science teacher . Methodology of teaching foreign languages - is the science that investigates the objectives, content , methods and tools for learning and teaching methods and education for foreign language material . It explores the teaching and learning of a foreign language and culture during the interaction of all subjects of the educational process with each other and with the language as an object of assimilation / learning . Generalized whole range of problems that solves methods of teaching foreign languages ??as a science that can be represented schematically : We emphasize that the original and primary in the teaching of foreign languages ??is the goal , it determines all other components . Feature and specific technique as a science is that all the questions on the scheme , with autonomous and equitable , should be addressed in conjunction . This allows you to build an adequate model of learning a foreign language . General Procedure deals with the study of patterns and characteristics of the process of learning a foreign language no matter what kind of foreign language in question. But knowledge of the general laws of learning a foreign language is not enough, when the teacher is faced with the specific features of a particular foreign language , for example , mastering angiyskom verbal forms that are specific only to the English language, the English language model of composition , methods of forming the numerals in English , etc. Consequently , private training technique explores topics of language and speech phenomena that are specific to a foreign language. On the one hand , the method of studying the real-world objects : a program , textbooks, teaching aids , foreign language teacher , student , organizational forms of the educational process : language lessons, class work , independent work , etc. On the other hand , are abstract objects , namely, learning objectives , learning content, learning principles , methods and techniques of teaching . Every independent science has its object of study , research your subject and its terminology , ie set of categories and concepts. The object of research methodology is considered the process of learning a foreign language as a whole . Consequently, this may include all of the components of the educational process : Quality real learning process in a foreign language determined relationship of subjective and objective factors of the process that determine its effectiveness. Thus, the object of study teaching methods are specific manifestations of the learning process : lessons , extracurricular activities , independent work of students , as well as specific forms of activity of the teacher and students and the entire arsenal of teaching foreign languages . Subject of research methodology - the numerous methodological theory that simulate the process of learning foreign languages. Methods are also subject to the objectives and content of training, learning principles , teaching methods and instructional techniques . The subject methods and language is a means of communication . Methodology of teaching foreign languages ??theoretically substantiates experimentally verifies and practically implements the model ( system ) language learning .
Among private teaching methods clear boundary lies between objects , which is the purpose of teaching assimilation of knowledge : it is literature, history, physics, biology , etc. , and items that require the formation of skills : drawing , physical education, music and work in all its manifestations. Apart is the mathematical cycle of disciplines in which knowledge transfer is intended formation of abstract thinking . In this series, only the teaching of foreign languages is " omnivorous " subject . Its purpose is and assimilation of knowledge about the language and culture of the people , and the formation of speech skills , and the development of abstract thinking in the course of combining the new language material in unfamiliar situations of communication . Hence, the long search for niches for methods of teaching foreign languages, becoming as a science which was done for a number of decades. Throughout this period, the status of that discipline was the most controversial. Thus, LV Szczerba noted that there is a technique applied linguistics , and BV Belyaev believed methodology applied psychology. IV Rakhmanov also questioned the status of an independent scientific methodology. The modern view on the methodology as a theory of learning a foreign language is stating that the technique is an independent science with its specificity and originality , with its object of study , subject of study and terminology.
Methodology of foreign language teaching as an independent discipline begins to take shape at the turn of 18-19 centuries. Until that time, questions the methodology of foreign languages engaged exclusively representatives of general pedagogy . The first attempts to theoretically justify the new methods for studying foreign languages , we find in the works of French teacher Zhakoto ( 1822 ) , in the works of the great Russian teacher KD Ushinsky , Russian methodologist Orbinskogo etc. In the second half of the 19th century technique has finalized an independent science . Any model of foreign language teaching is based primarily on the "image of language " that exists in linguistics in each period of its development .  Since the beginning of the 1950s a special influence in linguistics systemic acquired the idea that for decades defined " tiered " model of education , echoing the structure of the language and its image . Therefore, until the 1960s in the methodology of teaching foreign languages focused on issues of language acquisition , despite the fact that, as a practical learning objectives declared to give students a foreign language as a means of oral and written communication . Since the mid -1960s in linguistics along with the study of language more consistently developing research question , which is understood as the realization of the language system in specific acts of communication . Linguists spend a rigid distinction between linguistic competence and the use of language . Methodology refers in turn to the problem of not only mastering linguistic resources and to use them in speech, but also aided their use in acts of communication , that is the problem of training of speech activity . Beginning with the 1970s, there was a turn in linguistics to the social and functional aspects of language analysis . This means that in the sphere of interest of linguists went analysis of the mechanism of language use for different purposes , arising in the course of social interaction. During this period, linguistic studies produced pronounced pragmatic orientation, the main objective is the study of language is not the device and its operation. A new paradigm for analysis of verbal communication form primarily verbal activity theory and the theory of speech acts. Theory of speech activity that occurred at the turn of the 1970s , has allowed to reveal the essence of verbal communication in the context of the social situation in which the communicating are in communication with each other. Pronounced pragmatic focus of linguistic studies 1970-1980 -ies showed in general conceptual methodology position as a science and technology in the teaching of foreign languages . Methodical approaches acquired pronounced communicative nature . This led to a radical turn to the natural communication in the process of learning the language, which is aimed at the formation of the communicative competence in view of situational and personal factors . By the early 1980s, methodical science has accumulated a large arsenal of effective methods of learning aimed not only at developing students' abilities to use the language practically , but also on the overall development and education of students. It should be noted that modern science methodical taking a growing interest in the extralinguistic and circumstances of foreign language communication , to the person involved in communicating subjects, their knowledge about the world. This makes cultural studies orientation of modern techniques . That is why the learning process of a foreign language should be presented as a process of transmission linguocultural experience.
Knowledge of teaching patterns of foreign language teaching is based on professional and methodical skill of the teacher . This means that the teacher can achieve high quality results in their career, if he methodically literate and knows how to teach a foreign language in specific training conditions. Ignorance of the theoretical and applied principles of foreign language teaching puts the teacher in terms of when he is forced to go through trial and error , and often do not choose the shortest and most effective way to planned results . But it must also be borne in mind that knowledge alone is not enough. Very important is the ability and desire to efficiently and effectively use this knowledge in the practice of teaching , transform based on this knowledge mastered instructional techniques and methods of work and transfer them to the new learning environment.
Methodology of teaching foreign languages , by their nature subject to numerous hazards associated with unfounded hobbies , ignoring the important factors that determine the decision of any methodological issue. Nowhere so easily and with impunity can not manifest lzhenovatorstvo as in learning a foreign language , especially after more than half a century of ignoring the importance of this subject. Under these conditions, our science are particularly important figures such as A. A. Mirolubov , A. A. Leontiev  , B. A. Lapidus , I. L. Bim  , G. D. Tomahin , G. V. Rogov  , N. D. Galskova  J. L. Vitlin , I. N. Vereshchagin .
List of References
 G. E. Utebalieva Integrative theory of assimilation of non-native language. - Science and the Department ( collective monograph ) . - Almaty: Kazakh National University named Al-Farabi, 2008 .
б) Статья в журнале
 A. A. Leontiev The psychology of perception of speech. - Foreign languages in school. - 1975 . - № 1.
 Galskova N. D., Solovtsova E. I. On the problem of learning content foreign languages at the present stage of development of the school. - Foreign languages in school. - 1991 . - № 3 .
 L. V. Szczerba Teaching foreign languages in secondary schools : General methodology. - M. , 1974.
 I. V. Rakhmanov Some theoretical issues of methodology Buchan foreign language in high school. - In the book . : General methods of teaching foreign languages: Readings / Comp. Leontiev - Moscow: Russian language , 1991
 Bim I. L. The system of teaching foreign languages in high school and textbook as a model for its implementation. - M. , 1974.
 Rogov G. V., Vereshchagin I. N. Methodology of teaching English at the initial stage of secondary school. - M. - 1988 .
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