Organization of English lessons at the initial stage

Features of training of younger schoolboys and preschool children. Kognitivnoe development of preschool children. Features of teaching of English language at lessons with use of games. The principal views of games used at lessons of a foreign language.

Рубрика Педагогика
Вид курсовая работа
Язык английский
Дата добавления 06.03.2012

Nurture. Perhaps the most important thing you can do with your students is to nurture them everyday. For each child in your class, find something you like about him or her and be sure to tell him or her. Be encouraging, patient and kind while playing games and participating in activities and they'll like you as a teacher and a person which will in turn help them get excited about your class and what you have for them to do everyday. Using games to teach grammar can be both fun and rewarding for you and your students. Just remember to keep them engaged and make sure that you're games are truly teaching the skill at hand and you'll soon have a class full of students who get excited about learning grammar! If you need some ideas to help you get started, just visit the link in the box below this article for some free materials on how to use games in your classroom.

Here are some of the problems many preschool teachers have:

Preschool children have a VERY short attention span

Preschool children will forget things quickly

Preschool children may not be fully confident in their own language

Some of your preschool children may not be motivated to learn

They may be fearful

Pre-school children develop at very different rates so you are sure to have a mixed ability group

You need a LOT of ideas to keep their attention

You need real language learning techniques and not just time fillers to keep the children busy

Preschoolers can be easily overwhelmed

2.3 How to Best Teach Preschool English Language Learners

As a solution to these challenges use the things on the checklist below for guaranteed success in teaching English. These are the things that children love to do and you can use them as a vehicle for learning to gain instant results.

Chop and change your games and activities every 5-10 minutes.

This is vital because preschool children need variety as they get bored easily and have a very short attention span.

Vary the pace during the lesson, mixing up excitable games with quiet ones. You do not want your children getting bored but you do not want them getting over-excited either, so vary the pace according to the mood and keep the children on their toes but not over the top.

Repeat, review and revise. Use short games to review vocabulary and phrases you have taught earlier in the term and the year. If you neglect this, the children will have no recollection of the language you have covered!

Make your lessons playful and full of physical movement. The children will enjoy them more, be more motivated and remember the language better.

Teach in a relaxed and friendly atmosphere with plenty of encouragement.

Avoid competition with preschoolers. It can be stressful and overwhelm them. Play games where everyone wins, or where you do not single out a winner.

Encourage and support your young learners. Never tell them they cannot do it, they are no good at it or that they have failed. You could put them off wanting to learn English for life.

Bring in puppets or teddy bears and have the puppet introduce the new vocabulary for the lesson. If you do not have a puppet you can make one from a paper bag, or by sewing a couple of buttons on a sock.

Use chants, rhymes and songs. These are great for movement and frequent repetition of vocabulary and phrases.

Do not burden your preschool children with reading and writing - leave those for when the children are older. Preschoolers are still learning to write in their own language. There is plenty of time for that later.

Concentrate on listening and understanding, building vocabulary and the acquisition of short phrases.

Concentrate also on speaking practice, starting with single words and short phrases, and gradually moving onto longer sentences and questions.

Avoid abstract concepts and concentrate instead on concrete real items that the children understand and relate to. For example start with familiar topics such as colors, numbers, greetings, animals, fruit, food and drink, families, body parts, shapes, clothing, the weather, days of the week and short everyday sentences and phrases.

Teaching these topics using games activities and stories will engage your preschoolers considerably more than learning phonics and the alphabet!!

Use please and thank you and be positive. The human mind cannot actually process negatives - try not thinking of a blue monkey - you can't help it - you think of one! Rather than telling children off and telling them what not to do focus on positive behavior. If John is interrupting Jane look at Jane and say, I am listening to Jane now.

Be prepared - practice telling the stories before you go into class and have your picture flashcards and materials ready. This will allow you to be relaxed and to enjoy the class and the children rather than frantically trying to organize your materials while the children become restless and bored.

Mix up active participation and listening. If the children become restless do something active.

Be flexible. If something is not working then change the game or activity.

Involve shy children too - give them a central role and help them come out of their shell.

Bring in real objects when you can, such as clothes to dress up in, or props for acting out little plays or stories. When you cannot bring in real items use whatever objects are available in your class, and use colorful pictures of real items in the games.

Use stories. Stories are a fabulous resource for preschoolers, who will want to hear the same tales told over and over again. We all love stories - just think of the worldwide popularity of the movies.

You can use games and activities to teach the key words in the story, inspire the children with colorful illustrations to help them understand, and act out parts of the stories or the whole story afterwards with role plays, games and make believe.[6]

Here are ten great reasons to use stories to teach preschoolers English:

1. Children love them

2. The story can be the focal point of the lesson, giving meaning and context to odd words and phrases learned in isolation.

3. Children can absorb the structure of language subconsciously as well as hear familiar words they know.

4. Preschoolers will be happy to hear the same stories over and over again which is fantastic for revision and absorption.

5. You can use the stories as a base for fun activities in class.

6. A useful message can be contained in the story, aside from language learning

7. Using stories gives you another method of putting language across and will lead to more variety in your lessons.

8. You can use stories as quiet time in between boisterous activities.

9. Stories, along with songs, allow children to hear and understand far more English than any other method.

10. Enhancing story telling with gestures, actions, colorful illustrations, relevant games and role-plays increases language retention and acquisition, and makes for some really fun lessons. This is logical as you will be repeatedly reviewing and practicing the same language as well as making it real through play.

Preschool ESL resources for fun learning

Access an abundance of preschool activities and games and never be short of an idea again. There are one hundred games which include several hundred ideas to teach English to your preschool children in fun ways.

Choose from lively games to quiet ones to keep your children under control yet give them the variety that they need to be stimulated during your lessons.

Games make learning fun so your class and children are willing participants and not just there because they have to be.

Choose from listening and comprehension games and vary and reinforce with communicative speaking games.

Make use of hundreds of ideas for vocabulary acquisition and revision.

Remember that repetition is the mother of skill. These preschool ESL activities incorporate repetition as part of the natural learning process.

Hundreds of ideas to make learning words and short phrases and sentences fun and varied.

Many games and activities include movement so the children learn through what is known as the total physical response.

There is a corpus of research which shows that this is necessary for preschoolers if they are to enjoy lessons and learn effectively.

Activities games and ideas are included that you can use while chanting, singing or saying nursery rhymes.

The games and activities do not involve competition so your preschoolers will not become stressed or overwhelmed. Everyone plays and takes part in harmony.

Use the bonuses provided including illustrated stories especially written for the ESL preschool English language learner.

There are TWO levels of text, one for complete beginners and one for children who have been learning English for a year or two.

Teach any language you like using hundreds of flexible ideas provided

Very little preparation is needed for these ideas so you will have more time for your own personal life.

You can easily control the children by switching to calming games when you need to calm everyone down or throw in an exciting game when you want to pick up the pace. Variety is the key and with over one hundred games you are spoiled for choice.

These games are really super for preschoolers and guaranteed to help you with your lessons.

Ten Stories with Fun Color Illustrations

Vocabulary and language is introduced gently and progressively using a combination of new language and revision of what has gone before. This makes these stories a perfect ESL teaching resource because not too much language is introduced at one time, so even three year old language learners will understand and learn from these stories, gradually building on their vocabulary. Each story is fully and beautifully illustrated in color so the children can listen and understand easily. You can see examples of the pictures from the different stories below, as well as the language that will be learned and reviewed from that story.

The first story introduces seven animals and the greeting, "Hello, how are you?" "I'm fine thanks" and "I'm hungry". The animals are all cute and friendly looking and use the same language throughout the story. The second story introduces a few more and includes the animals from the first story.[8] The children will learn and animals and practice counting to ten as Anna goes to the zoo, sees the animals and counts how many there are. The third story revises counting and introduces colors as Archie jumps round a course of colorful jumps on his pony, and things do not always go as expected! The fourth story revises the greeting from story one, and colors and animals. Some new words from nature are introduced such as grass, flower, pond and path, plus the short phrases "Is that you?" and "No, it's me". There are some really fun games to play with those phrases. The fifth story involves a group of ten cute little ants which are marching down a path, and which drop off to sleep one by one in different places. This revises the word ant, all the numbers and the colors from stories two and three, the nouns from story four and introduces some new words plus the short phrases "I'm tired" and "falls asleep".

The sixth story stars a very cute cocker spaniel and revises several the nouns from stories four and five and introduces action verbs such as run, shout, walk and chase. In the seventh story the cute cocker spaniel chases some ducks and loses her master. This story revises vocabulary from previous stories and introduces more action verbs. Story eight involves an ant which has a hard time getting his teddy bear to go to sleep. Again there is a mixture of revision and new words and phrases, including some more action verbs and "I'm tired" and "I'm not tired". "The kids absolutely adore stories 1-10. The big favourite here is the bear with his own teddy bear, they think that's really funny and ask for this story over and over (though by now it's THEM telling ME the story!" from Genevra Keywood, teaching in Spain"

In story nine Hetty invites a lion to tea. This story revises greetings and some vocabulary from previous stories, and introduces fruits and the question "would you like some …?"

And story ten introduces the days of the week and Gerard the Giraffe who eats far too much. You can use the numbers 1 to 7 if the days of the week are too hard. The story also revises the vocabulary from story nine.

The stories on their own are really lovely, and they all have adorable characters or a cute twist at the end that appeals to preschoolers, and adults too for that matter!

Pre-teach language with fun games before telling the story

You can also play games and activities before the story to introduce the key vocabulary. And after the story you can have the children act out the characters while you read the story again, play games using the illustrations.

Full details and descriptions are provided for pre and post story games and activities. This means that you do not have to spend time coming up with your own ideas as they are already included. As well as the story-related games and activities you can play before and after the story-telling itself, there are tips on the different things that you can do while you are telling the story. This will vary depending on whether it is the first time you are telling the story or if the children already know it well and keep requesting to hear it again. The better the children know the story and the words involved the more they can participate in the telling of the story and be actively involved rather than just passively listening.

2.4 Preschool Games

Zoo Animals Jigsaw Space Jigsaw

Fruits-n-Veggies Jigsaw

Toys Jigsaw Playground Jigsaw Match Three: Letters A-G Preschool Stories

Types of games: The “magic matchbox” game-this is guessing game played by teams to practice numbers. Exponent: how many? There are

Additional benefits: genuine communication; hidden drilling; teamwork

Language needed: numbers 1to 11

Time: 10 to 15 minutes

Material: 1matchbox; 11 toothpicks per person

Preparation 1) the teacher challenges the students to count the 11 toothpicks in his/her hand. To model the game, the teacher then puts some into the matchbox, shakes it and asks the students to guess how many are inside. 2) the teacher explains how to play the game in the students native language if necessary. 3) the teacher divides the class into two teams, giving each team an English name, example. The roosters and monkeys. Then the teacher write the team names on the board for scoring during the game. 4) if the class has a large number of students, this is one way to get smaller teams. Choose 10 players from each team by chanting together a `choosing rhyme' such as the following: 1)one, two, three, four,

2) O-U-T, OUT!

3) (the student chosen is the one you are pointing at on the word OUT!)

5) Each player secretly puts no more than 11 toothpicks into his/her matchbox.

During the Game 1) The first player from the Roosters stands up, shakes the matchbox in his/her hand. His/her team members shout together `How many?' The monkeys then give the answer by replying `there are'

2) If the guess is the correct number, the monkeys wins a point. If not, the Roosters get the point.

3)then switch roles. This time the monkeys ask and the Roosters guess.

4) the game continues until all the players get a turn.

5) The teacher keeps a record of the points on the board. The team with the most points wins.

Category writing game: divide the classroom into two or three groups. Each group chooses their “captain”. The teacher writes on the board a word like “FRUIT” or “COLORS” or “ANIMALS”, etc. Each group has to tell their captain to write down as many words as they can which belong to that category. They have 1 or 2 minute. Each group takes 1 point for each word. Correct Spelling is very important in this exercise!

Color game: this is good one for teaching the names of colors to young children. Arrange various colors of construction paper in a circle. Play some music and have the children march around the circle. Stop the music and all the children must sit down next to a color. Pick a color and sing (to the tune of “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star”): “Who's beside the color (insert name of color)? Please stand up , if it's you”. At that point, the child next to the color mentioned stands up. Continue until all of the children get a turn.

Banana race: Children just love this! It is basically a QUIZ game in which you ask children questions (target vocabulary) like: “What's this? What fruit is red and round? How many chairs are there in the classroom?” or the teacher simply draws items on the board, makes animal noises so that they guess. You can work with students or split the class into small groups/teams if you have a large class. The teacher draws on the board a race track and each team or student will be a BANANA waiting at the Starting Line. They will approach the goal line as they answer each question. Each right answer equals a step towards the Goal Line. The BANANA who arrives there first, WINS!

Conclusion

Many schools and authorities were beginning to adapt their existing initiatives to develop the four capacities more fully. A number of schools have taken a fresh look at work already underway and adjusted the rationale or added a dimension to address the four capacities more fully. For example, in one education authority, the well-established program for teaching philosophy to primary pupils has been used to incorporate aspects of other curricular areas, notably listening and talking. Teachers were clear about the overall aim of lessons, and pupils in schools using this approach well were able to use their enquiry skills in other curricular areas with confidence. A number of head teachers used the Heads Together virtual community very successfully to exchange ideas and experiences in their approaches to the curriculum. This proved a valuable source of mutual support and helped build confidence. The exemplification of good practice contained in this report aims to encourage others to look closely at the learning needs of their pupils and consider ways to meet these needs more effectively. Primary schools which had begun to use curriculum flexibility effectively exhibited the following features. Schools had a clear rationale for the use of additional time, including procedures for supporting the effectiveness of initiatives. Planning for learning outcomes for pupils was clear. Parents and the local community were involved in projects and in celebrating pupils' successes. The use of time was closely monitored in terms of outcomes for pupils. Positive relationships, often including the use of humor, were strong within the class and school. All pupils, including those with additional support needs, were included in initiatives. Pupils were encouraged to make links between different areas of learning.

Further professional development of staff at all levels is still needed to ensure that schools make full and appropriate use of the opportunities for flexibility in curriculum delivery offered by Curriculum for Excellence. Schools need to employ a range of formal and informal measures for evaluating outcomes for evaluating outcomes for pupils to ensure that progression is clear and learning maximized. Only then will pupils benefit fully from the exciting and engaging developments in learning rendered possible by Curriculum for Excellence.

List of literature

1) Sarah Phillips “Young Learners” 2000. Oxford[1;2;3]

2) Opal Dan “To teach young learners” 2000. Macmillan [4;5]

3) Donaldson, M. Human minds: An exploration.1992. London: Penguin.[10]

4) Fisher, R. Teaching children to think.1990. Oxford: Blackwell.[11]

5) Hughes, A. English across the curriculum: Theme-based learning in the primary classroom. In New Tendencies in Curriculum Development. Kohn, J & Wolff, D. 1993.Szombathely: Commission of the European Communities. [17]

6) Hughes, A. Effective foreign language teaching at the primary level. In Raya, M, J. Faber, P. Gewehr W. Peck, A. J. (Eds.). Language Teaching in Europe.2001. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang[15]

7)Tough, J. Listening to children talking.1976. London: Wardlock.[18]

8) Williams, M. and Burden, R. L. Psychology for language teachers1997. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[19]

9) Bruner, J. and Haste, H. Making sense.1987. London: Routledge.[12]

10) Bruner, J. Child's talk: Learning to use language.1983. Oxford: Oxford University Press.[14]

11) Cameron, L. Teaching languages to young learners.2001. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[8]

12) Chomsky, N. Review of verbal behaviour language. In Language.1959[16].

13)Cummins, J. Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. In Review of Educational Research.1979.[18]

14) Donaldson, M. Children's minds.1978. London: Routledge.[19]

15) Ellis, G. and Brewster, J. with Girard, D. The primary teacher's guide.2002. London: Penguin.[5]

16) Gardner, H. Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice.1993. London: Harper Collins[15].

17) Lenneberg, E. Biological foundations of language.1967. New York: John Wiley & Sons.[16]

18) Piaget, J. Six psychological studies.1967. London: London University Press.[6]

19) Vygotsky, L.S. Mind in society.1978. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.[8]

20)Khan, J. `Using games in teaching English to young learners'1996.[3;6]

21) In Brumfit, C, Teaching English to Children. From Practice to Principle England:1996. Longman[4]

Supplementary Material

LearnEnglish Kids

http://www.britishcouncil.org/kids

This site has a wide variety of activities and ideas for use when teaching English to young learners. There are also materials and resources available to download.

Pre K-12 English Language Proficiency Standards

http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/seccss.asp?CID=113&DID=1583

The TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) website has up-to-date information about the guidelines that K-12 students must acquire (by language proficiency level and grade level).

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